ABCDV网站

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

扫一扫,访问微社区

查看: 253|回复: 1

英语专业审核语言学复习资料

[复制链接]
发表于 2018-1-2 12:03:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
语言类:英语笔译,英语口译,英语写作,高级英语,综合英语,英语视听说,基础英语,英语听力,英语口语,商务英语,商务英语阅读、商务沟通、商务英语写作,专业英语,英语国家概况

英语笔译:
IXXXoduction to Translation
In this unit, students are expected to learn the definition of translation; the scope of translation; translation criteria; literal translation and free translation.

Ⅰ. What Is Translation?
Linguistic view on translation:Translation is “the replacement of textual material in one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (target language). ”  (Catford, 1965:20)

Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.                      (Nida & Taber 1969:12)所谓翻译,是指在译语中用最贴切而又自然的对等语再现原文的信息,首先在语义上,其次在文体上。 (E. A 奈达, 1969)

Communicative views on translation:
This approach views translation as a communicative process which takes place within a social context. The translator attempts to produce the same effect on the target language readers as was produced by the original on the source language readers. (Newmark, 1982:22) 翻译是一种跨文化的信息交流与交换的活动,其本质是传播。 (吕俊,1997)

【例】 She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth, and can do what she likes. She is really a lucky dog.她生长在富贵之家,凡事都可以随心所欲,真是个幸运儿。

Every dog has its day.  人人皆有得意日 a lucky dog 幸运儿Love me, love my dog.
爱屋及乌help a dog over a stilt助人度过难关 as faithful as a dog 形容人的忠诚

Ⅱ. Scope of Translation
1.按语言分类:
语内翻译(iXXXalingual translation)语际翻译(interlingual translation)
2. 按活动形式分类:
笔译(translation)
口译(oral interpretation):
交替传译(consecutive translation)
和同声传译(simultaneous translation)
3. 按翻译材料的文体分类:
应用文体翻译 科技文体翻译
论述文体翻译新闻文体翻译
艺术文体翻译
4. 按处理方式分类:全译 节译 编译

Ⅲ. Translation Criteria
严复(1853---1921):
Triple Principle of Translation
  信 (faithfulness):忠实准确
  达 (expressiveness):通顺流畅
  雅 (elegance):文字古雅
By faithfulness/accuracy, we mean being faithful not only to the original contents, to the original meaning and views, but also to the original form and style.
By smoothness, we mean not only  easy and readable rendering, but also idiomatic expression in the target language.

Criteria in the West
Alexander Fraser Tytler, (1747-1814)the famous English scholar proposed the three principles of translation:
(1)A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. (译文应完全复写出原作的思想)
(2)The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original. (译文的风格和笔调应与原文的性质相同)
(3)A translation should have all the ease of the original composition. (译文应和原作同样流畅)

Ⅳ.  Translation Strategies
1. Literal translation or free translation?
In the practice of translation, we may find that now and then some words in their usual senses are very difficult to deal with because of the disparity between the English and the Chinese languages. In this case, we have to resort to some special means of translation. Literal translation and free translation are two alternative approaches to tackle this problem.
1)直译:在基本保持原文的语言形式(词语、句子结构、修辞手法等)的同时,完整而准确地把意思表达出来,且译文流利晓畅。直译是不同于硬译、死译的重要翻译方法之一。
2)意译:为了完整而准确地把意思表达出来,抛弃原文的语言形式,按译入语的习惯重新遣词造句。意译是不同于乱译的重要翻译方法之一。
无论直译、意译,都要符合“忠实、通顺”的标准(许渊冲 1984:5)。
当译文的形式和原文的形式一致的时候,就无所谓直译、意译。e.g. Disaster never come single. “祸不单行”,内容和形式都忠实于原文,既可以说是直译也可以说是意译。
      
当译文的形式和原文的形式不一致的时候,就有直译或意译的问题,而且直译可以有程度不同的直译,意译也可以有程度不同的意译。
e.g.
He had about as much chance of getting a job as of being chosen mayor of Chicago.

进入21世纪,麦当劳的反对团体由集合到一面共同的旗帜之下—— 反对全球化。
Upon the entering of 21 century, the anti-Macdonald’s groups have again rallied under a common banner of anti-globalization. (采用直译、生动形象,且意思完全可以为英语读者接受)

2. Foreignizing Translation(异化翻译) and Domesticating Translation(归化翻译)
While literal translation and free transaltion mainly deal with linguistic reproduction, foreignizing translation and domesticating translation are concerned more with cultural, linguistic and aesthetic considerations.
Foreignization is a strategy in which a target text is produced which deliberately breaks target conventions by retaining something of the foreignness of the original.
异化译法是偏离民族主义的,对译入语文化价值施加压力,使其关注外语文本的语言和文化差异,把读者带入外国情景,体验外国人的阅读感受(Venuti 1995:20)。
换言之,异化译法要求译者向原文作者靠拢,采取原文作者使用的表达方式传达原文的内容。
e.g.
to kill two birds with one stone:一石二鸟
All roads lead to Rome :条条大路通罗马

Domestication is a strategy in which a transparent, fluent style is adopted in order to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for target language readers.
归化译法采取民族中心主义的态度,使外语文本符合译入语的文化价值观,把原作者带入译入语文化。(Venuti 1995: 20)
换言之,归化译法要求译者向译文读者靠拢,采取译文读者习惯的译语表达方式传达原文的内容。
e.g.
to kill two birds with one stone: 一箭双雕、一举两得
to grow like mushrooms: 雨后春笋
All roads lead to Rome: 殊途同归


英语口译:Interpreting
A Course to Develop An Understanding and Basic Skills of Interpreting
After studying this unit, you should be able to:
understand what and how to prepare for the interpreting tasks in the long run.
find ways to improve your interpreting skills and performance.
master the basic words and expressions about protocol routine.
know some cultural background knowledge about protocol routine.

I. Course IXXXoduction
Duration: 2 terms
Modules:
-Preparing (译前准备) training
-Long-term and short-term
-Decoding (听入解码) training
-Active listening
-Discourse analysis
-Note taking
-Memorizing (短期记忆) training
-Retelling
-Encoding (编码输出)training
-Coordinating (任务协调)training
-Sight interpreting
-Shadowing
-Packaging (译后总结) training
-Quality assessment

1. Interpreting defined
A communicative activity
Multiple participants: speaker, audience, interpreter
Multiple tasking: listening, analyzing, note-taking, understanding, restructuring, production
Conveyance of messages from the source language to the target language

2.1 Criteria
Accuracy vs. fidelity
Fluency vs. fluency
Efficiency  vs. elegance
2.2 Working environment
2.3 Method
2.4 Feedback

3. Classification of interpreting
By delivery model: consecutive interpreting,simultaneous interpreting
Whispering,relay interpreting
By occasion and content: Conference interpreting, business interpreting, court interpreting, media interpreting, community interpreting, telephone interpreting

Simultaneous interpreting
Interpret while the speaker is making speech
Special facility required, including: floor, booth, SI equipment (coXXXol, interpreting console, receiver…)
Three types: Conference interpreting, sight interpreting, whispering—no facility required for whispering)

4. Interpreting Process


5. Basic Requirements for Interpreters
-Strong sense of duty
-High level of linguistic proficiency
-Encyclopedic and subject knowledge
-Good master of interpreting skills
Active listening
Discourse analysis
Note taking
Retelling
Public speaking
Paraphrasing
Figures interpreting
Idioms interpreting
Fuzzy interpretation
Cross-cultural communication
Coping tactics

6. 3P Model for Interpreter Training

7. Professional Codes of Conduct
1)        confidentiality(保密)
2)        impartiality(公正)
3)        accuracy(准确)
4)        objectiveness(客观)
5)        competence(胜任)




商务英语,商务英语阅读、商务沟通、专业英语

商务英语-BEC advantage
根据商务工作的实际需要,从听、说、读、写四个方面对学生在商务和一般生活环境下使用英语的能力进行培养,达到BEC初级考试要求水平
make students to get familiar with the BEC Vantage
According to the actual needs of commercial work, listening, speaking, reading and writing four aspects of students' ability to use English in business and general living environment and cultured reach BEC junior level exam requirements.

How to study BEC Vantage 1. business words and phrases 2. read more business background 3. listening more BEC  4. accumulative more business topic 5. often go on line with good websites

company benefits, A. an impressive job title   B. training and staff development  C. a good salary  D. a pension   E. flexible working hours  F. opportunities to travel   G. opportunities for promotion  H. parental leave   I. days off and long holidays  J. a company car.
advertising-Types of advertising    1. word of mouth   2. mailshot   邮寄广告   3. TV commercials   4. spam 垃圾电子邮件    5. banners / streamer  横幅   6. newspaper adverts  7. brochures  8. sample;

recruitment

商务英语阅读-
本课程的教学目的是培养学生掌握阅读和理解商务英语文章的基本技能,获取商务信息的基本能力,为毕业后成为适应社会需要的应用型涉外商务工作者打下坚实的基础。通过学习有关的商务活动的实用语言材料,学生应熟悉主要的商务英语文章类型;高阅读商务文章的能力,懂得一般的商务表达,学会分析商务文章的特点,并懂得一些国际经济文章中常用词汇,了解国际经济的知识;能基本读懂英文原版商务教科书有关章节的大意,能基本读懂主要英语报刊,杂志有关的商务活动的难度较低的报道和评论文章;能将一般性英语商务材料译成汉语,进一步提高专业基本的听、说、读、写、译的技能。

Purpose of this course is to train students to master reading and understanding the basic skills of business English articles, the ability to acquire basic business information, after graduation to become to meet the social needs of application-oriented foreign business workers, and lay a solid foundation.

By learning about the business activities of practical language material, students should be familiar with the main types of business English texts; to understand the expression of general business, learn to analyze the characteristics of a business article, and understand some of the articles in the international economic vocabulary , understand the international knowledge economy; can basically read the original English version of the relevant sections of the business textbook. Can basically read major English newspapers and magazines related to the business activities of reports and articles; capable of translating general business materials English into Chinese, further enhance the professional basic listening, speaking, reading, writing and translation skills.

1、 美国生活方式 2、 商务习俗 3、 购物与顾客 4、 领导风范 5、 生活态度 6、 网络商务 7、 银行与信贷 8、 礼仪  9、 商务职业生涯 10、 产品与促销 11、 名人 12、 美容产业

1 American way of life, 2 business practices 3, shopping and customer 4,leadership style, 5, attitudes 6,E-commerce, 7,banking and credit 8,etiquette, 9 business career 10, promotional products, 11 celebrity 12,beauty industry


商务沟通-Business Communication
The Importance of Communication
        Communication skills can help you acquire a first job or a better job.
        On the job, poor communication skills can be harmful.
        Having good communication skills can give you an edge over other job candidates.
3. The Process of Communication
        Sender and Source(发出者和信息源)
    Participants in the communication process who communicate messages to an audience are called senders.
        Message(信息)
A message is the written, oral, or nonverbal communication that sender transmits to an audience.
信息一般通过符号表示。这些符号代表一定的意义,并可分为语言符号和非语言符号两大类。语言符号是代表特定事物或观点的字、词、句。除语言符号之外,非语言符号也是重要的交流方式,比如,身体语言,包括面部表情、手势、姿势、声调、外表等等。不同文化中,非语言符号涵义有所不同。比如,不直视某人在某些文化中表示对他人的尊重,而在另外一些文化中,则表示不诚实、企图隐瞒事实。
        Encoding(编码)
    The activity of the sender choosing certain words or nonverbal methods to send an intentional message is called encoding. (编码指发出者输出信息前,选择语言和非语言信息的过程,亦即制造符号(creating symbol)的内心活动,这一过程可长可短。)
        Channel(渠道)
Every message is transmitted through a channel—the medium through which the message
sender and the message receiver communicate.
Table 1-1: Three Typical Communication Channels
Two-way, face-to-face        Informal conversations, interviews, oral reports, speeches, and teleconferences
Two-way, not-face-to-face        Telephone conversations and intercompany announcements
One-way, not-face-to-face        Written documents such as letters, memos, reports, and press release prepared traditionally or sent electronically (electronic mail, facsimile, voice mail)
沟通的渠道是人们表达信息的手段,是传递被编码信息的途径。信息传递的路径多种多样:可以是书面形式的,如报纸和杂志等;可以是非纸介的电子形式,如电子邮件、手机短信等;也可以通过电波、光波和声波等形式,如电话、广播、电视等;既可以是平面化的,如信札、照片等,也可以是立体的,如可视电话、网络视频等。
        Receiver(接收者)
Receivers are the audience to whom messages are directed.
        Decoding(解码)
The activity of the receiver attaching meaning to the words or symbols that the sender sends is called decoding.
接收者在反馈信息之前,接收发出者发出的信息并赋予意义的过程被称为解码。影响赋予符号意义的因素很多,诸如生活经验、宗教信仰、性别年龄、社会角色与文化差异等。其中又以文化差异的影响最为显著。
        Feedback(反馈)
Feedback consists of messages—verbal and nonverbal—that convey a reaction to the communicator’s message.
正常情况下,接收者收到发出者发出的信息之后,会对信息作出反应(response),然后向发出者回送信息,这一回复信息的过程称之为反馈。正是因为有了反馈,沟通才能显现出双向、持续的动态性特征。
        Noise(干扰)
It refers to all the factors that interfere with the exchange of messages.
干扰是阻碍人们准确理解信息的因素。干扰可以分为内部干扰(internal noise)、外部干扰(external noise)和语义干扰(semantic noise)。
外部干扰来自于环境,可能阻碍信息的接收或理解,比如,课堂附近的建筑工地发出的各种噪音会直接影响授课、听课效果等。内部干扰出现在发出者和接收者的内心,使发出者和接收者关注的不是当前的交流而是其他事情。例如,一个学生放不下对丢失钱包的思虑,注意力根本不在课堂上,听课效果必然大打折扣。语义干扰是指所用词汇含有几种不同意义,可能会干扰接收者对信息的理解。
        Context(语境)
The communication context refers to the situation in which communication takes place and to every factor affecting its transmission。
语境是指沟通发生的场所和情景。语境可以分为物理语境(physical context)、社会语境(social context)和人际语境(interpersonal context)。
物理语境是指交际发生的真实客观环境,即交际互动是发生在室内或是室外,是公共场合还是私人聚会,周围环境喧闹还是安静,灯光明亮或是昏暗等等。
社会语境是指在不同的社交场合人们对他人不同的行为期待,例如,人们在葬礼上的交际活动就有别于私人聚会。
人际语境也是一种沟通环境。从人际语境可以看出沟通双方之间的关系,如师生、朋友、对头、上下级等,以及不同文化背景的两者相互交流等。
4. The Flow of Communication
        Upward Communication(向上沟通)
Messages flowing from subordinates to superiors are called upward communication. Upward communication conveys four types of messages:

        What subordinates are doing
        Unsolved work problems
        Suggestions for improvement
        How subordinates feel about each other and the job


向上沟通是指信息从较低层次向较高层次传递的过程。如下级、被管理者通过一定的渠道,与上级、管理决策层所进行的信息交流。下级、被管理者通过向上沟通可向上级管理者提供反馈、汇报各种信息,并告知当前存在的问题。上级、管理者也可通过沟通了解某些不足之处。向上沟通可采取面对面交谈、较正式的会议或情况介绍等形式,也可通过书面的形式传递。
        Downward Communication(向下沟通)
Downward communication occurs whenever superiors initiate messages to their subordinates. There are four types of downward communication:

        Job instructions
        Job rationale
        Procedures and practices
        Feedback

向下沟通是指信息从较高层次向较低层次传递的过程,即信息的传递是从高级主管到中层主管,再到基层主管,最后到工作执行人员。例如,上层管理者给下属布置工作,进行工作指导,告知政策与程序等,通常采取向下沟通的模式。由于向下沟通可用来传达组织内部管理所需的规章制度、工作程序和日常信息,因而向下沟通具有权威性,可能包括下达正式的书面文件、介绍日常工作情况和布置工作或上下级之间单向的面对面交谈。
        Horizontal Communication(水平沟通)
Horizontal communication consists of messages between members of an organization with equal power. Horizontal communication serves five purposes:

        Task coordination
        Problem solving
        Sharing information
        Conflict resolution
        Building rapport

向上沟通和向下沟通属于跨越不同层级的沟通,因此,可视为垂直沟通。当沟通发生在同一工作群体的成员之间,同一等级的工作群体成员之间,同一等级的管理者之间以及任何等级相同的人员之间时,这种沟通模式就被称为水平沟通或横向沟通。
5. Internal and External Communication
        Internal Communication(内部沟通)
Internal communication involves communicating back and forth within the organization through such written and oral channels as memos, reports, proposals meetings, oral presentations, speeches, and person-to-person and telephone conversation.
        External Communication(外部沟通)
External communication refers to communication with an organization’s major audiences—the general public, customers, vendors and other businesses, and government officials.
6. Communication and Culture
        High-Context Culture(高语境文化)
High-context cultures prefer to use high-context messages in which most of the meaning is either implied by the physical setting or presumed to be part of the individual’s internalized belief, values, and norms; very little is provided in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message.
Communicators in these societies learn to discover meaning from the context in which a message is delivered: the nonverbal behaviors of speakers, the history of the relationship, and the general social rules that govern interaction between people.
        Low-Context Culture(低语境文化)
Low-context cultures prefer to use low-context messages, in which the majority of the information is vested in the explicit code.
To low-context communicators, the meaning of a statement is in the words spoken.
7. Communication Channel
The oral channel includes media such as face-to-face conversation, telephone calls, speeches, presentations, and meetings. The most common written media are letters, memos, and reports.
Oral channel also includes voice mail, audiotape and videotape, teleconfer¬encing and videoconferencing, closed-circuit television, and many more. Written media also include e-mail, faxing, computer conferencing (with groupware), websites, instant messaging, and more.

General Sites of Rhetorical CoXXXasts in Business Communication
4.1 Translation
涉外商务翻译要求信息必须准确、无误地进行传达,其遵循的翻译理论应该是美国著名翻译家尤金•奈达所提出的“功能对等” (Functional Equivalence)理论。该理论强调:翻译的预期目的主要是原文和译文在信息内容、说话方式、文体、文风、语言、文化、社会因素诸方面达到对等,从而使原文读者的反应与译文读者的反应达到对等。
(一)专业
  专业性,是商务英语的一个重要特点。商务英语的词汇具有比较明显的专业特征,其语境制约着部分词汇具有其特殊的商务语义。如,普通英语中“balance,liability,quote,draft”的通常含义分别为“平衡、责任、引用、草稿”,但在商务语境中,它们却有着特殊的含义。例如:
    此公司债台高筑,不得不破产了。
Heavy liabilities forced the firm into bankruptcy.
 (二)庄重
  商务英语具有正式、严肃、庄重的文体特征。例如:欣寄样品一份。
I have pleasure in forwarding this sample to you.  
以上句中have pleasure, forward在各自的上下文中分别可用简单口语词汇来代替,但文体意义有所不同,原文使用了书面语言,句子更正规庄重。
(三)明确
  普通英语常大量使用代词指代前面的名词,以避免不必要的重复。而商务英语则一反普通英语的这种一般趋势,为防止指代可能产生的模糊性,经常采用重复名词或语句的手段,以准确严密的语言结构确保商务信息传递的明确性和完整性。
我方会尽快发货。
We will deliver your things soon.
The 200 cassettes you ordered on July 21st will be delivered on August 1st.
(四)简洁
  简洁是商务英语的另一文体特征,这从其格式用语的使用即可见一斑,其格式有“if+ 形容词(或过去分词)”或“as+过去分词”等用法。如“if available,if possible,if necessary,if practicable”或“as agreed,as required”等。
4.2 Illustrations
Graphics play an important role in international communication because they convey meaning without depending on words. It is important to bear in mind that different cultures have different levels of visual literacy and often have different associations for what they see.
4.3 Numbers
Differences in Numerical Representations

CouXXXy                       Sample date formats
United States                       March 1, 2000
France                            1 mars 2000
Germany (official format)             1.Marz 2000
Sweden                            00-01-03
Italy (official format)                  1.3.00

CouXXXy                       Sample time formats
United States                       8:35 p.m.
France                            20:35
Germany                          20:35
Quebec, Canada                    20 h 35
Sweden                           kl20.35
Venezuela                         8:35

CouXXXy                       Sample magnitude representations
One thousand         One million              One billion
United States         1,000            1,000,000              1,000,000,000
Germany            1.000            1.000.000              1.000.000.000
Sweden             1000             1 000 000              1 000 000 000
4.4 Online Communication

5. Specific Sites of Rhetorical CoXXXasts in Business Communication
As coXXXastive rhetoric studies the cultural influence on the second-language writing, an analysis to some specific sites of business communication is necessary. The following are some specific genres where the differences in culture-based rhetorical practices and expectations can cause misunderstanding and problems.
Business communicators could benefit immensely from study in coXXXastive rhetoric. Communication in the business arena includes Business Minutes, Press Release, Business Reports, Business Proposals, Business CoXXXacts, Resumes, Application Letters, Oral Presentations and many other forms of expression where the interplay of culture and communication can create barriers to clarity.
5.1 Business Correspondence
Power distance: is the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. (权力距离是指机构或组织中权利较小的成员对权利被不平等分配的接受程度。


5.2 Business Report
qualifiers, such as “necessarily,” “certainly,” “very likely,” “plausibly,” “maybe,” and “so far as the evidence goes.”
To:Mr. Zhao Minghua,president of Beijing University
From:Mr. Li HongJun,Dean of Studies.
Subject:Buying computers and videotape recorders.
Dear Mr.President:
  Upon the request of the Equipment Division of the university,‥‥‥
  The laboratory material is so shortage that the situation have to be improved at once. In order to enhance the effect of experiments,it is hereby recommended that twenty computers and ten videotape recorders be bought and issued to the laboratory.
    Li  HongJun

One thing to be improved in the future might be to develop more practical videotapes related to drug product detailings To supplement rather than general ones currently available.
    One thing to be considered in the future is to have if the situation allows, two visiting days per one trainee; one at the middle of the training period and the other toward the end.
6. Reform in Business Communication Learning
Approach        Results
"how-to" approach        students move into the work world understanding how to prepare a report that follows a set rhetorical pattern appropriate for the generic U.S. audience
Intercultural approach
        Actually, when businessmen communicate from one culture to another, they should not assume they need to pull out the standard formats and fill in the blanks. Instead, they should take the time to learn about the people they are communicating to and discuss with them the form that would be most useful for them.  

Business Meetings
The Process of Meeting
3.1 Planning a Meeting
Before you call a meeting, be sure that one is truly needed. Perhaps you could accomplish your purpose more effectively in a memo or through individual conversations. If you do require the interaction of a group, be sure to bring the right people together in the right place for just enough time to accomplish your goals. The key to productive meetings is careful planning of purpose, participants, time, location, and agenda:
3.1.1 Determine the Purpose of the Meeting
Most meetings are one of two types: In informational meetings, participants share information and sometimes coordinate action. Briefings may come from each participant or from the leader. In decision-making meetings, participants persuade, analyze, and solve problems. They are often involved in brainstorming, sessions and debates.
3.1.2 Decide Who Should Attend
Try to invite only those people whose presence is essential. If the session is purely informational and one person will be doing most of the talking, you can include a relatively large group. However, if you're trying to solve a problem, develop a plan, or reach a decision, try to limit participation to between 6 and 12 people.
3.1.3 Choose the Meeting Time
Consider the following when you choose the meeting time:

3.1.4 Choose the Meeting Location
Decide where you'll hold the meeting, and reserve the location. For work sessions, morning meetings are usually more productive than afternoon sessions. Also, consider the seating arrangements. Are rows of chairs suitable, or do you need a conference table? Plus, pay attention to room temperature, lighting, ventilation, acoustics, and refreshments.
3.1.5 Establish the Agenda
Meeting agendas help prepare the participants. Although small, informal meetings may not require a formal agenda, even they benefit if you prepare at least a list of matters to be discussed. Distribute the agenda to participants several days before the meeting so that they know what to expect and can come prepared to respond to the issues at hand.
3.1.6 Assign the Minute-Taking
Delegate the minute-taking to someone other than the leader. The minute-taker should record major decisions made and tasks assigned. To avoid misunderstandings, the minute-taker must record each assignment, the person responsible for it, and the date on which it is due

3.2 Conducting the Meeting
3.2.1 Keep the Meeting on Track
A meeting leader is responsible for
        Keeping the meeting moving along. If the discussion lags, call on those who haven't been heard.
        Pacing the presentation and discussion. Limit the time spent on each agenda item so that you'll be able to cover them all.
        Summarizing meeting achievements. As time begins to run out, interrupt the discussion and summarize what has been accomplished; however, don't be too rigid. Allow enough time for all the main ideas to be heard, and give people a chance to raise related issues.
3.2.2 Follow Parliamentary Procedure
One way you can improve the productivity of a meeting is by using parliamentary procedure, a time-tested method for planning and running effective meetings. Decide how strictly you want to adhere to parliamentary procedure: For small groups you may be quite flexible, but for larger groups you'll want to use a more formal approach. Used correctly, parliamentary procedure can help teams conduct business efficiently, protect individual rights, maintain order, preserve a spirit of harmony, and accomplish team and organizational goals.
There are several situations when parliamentary procedure is an appropriate way to operate a meeting:
Opening the meeting        a.        Have goals for the meeting been identified?
b.        Has necessary background information been reviewed?
c.        Are expectations for members’ coXXXibutions clear?
d.        Has the sequence of events for the meeting been previewed?
e.        Have time constraints been identified?
Encouraging balanced participation        a.        Have leader and members used questions to draw out quiet members?
b.        Are off-track comments redirected with references to the agenda and relevancy challenges?
c.        Do leader and members suggest moving on when an agenda item has been dealt with adequately?
Maintaining positive tone         a.        Are questioning and paraphrasing used as non-defensive responses to hostile remarks?
b.        Are dubious comments enhanced as much as possible?
c.        Does the meeting reflect the cultural norms of attendees?
Solving problems creatively        a.        Is the problem defined clearly (versus too narrowly or broadly)?
b.        Are the causes and effects of the problem analyzed?
c.        Are clear criteria for resolving the problem established?
d.        Are possible solutions brainstormed without being evaluated?
e.        Is a decision made based on the previously established criteria?
f.        Are methods of implementing the solution developed?

3.2.3 Encourage Participation
The best meetings are those in which everyone participates, so don't let one or two people dominate your meeting while others doodle on their notepads. To draw out the shy types, ask for their input on issues that particularly pertain to them. You might say something like, "Robert, you've done a lot of work in this area. What do you think?" For the overly talkative, simply say that time is limited and others need to be heard from. As you move through your agenda, stop at the end of each item, summarize what you understand to be the feelings of the group, and state the important points made during the discussion.

3.3 Close the Meeting
At the conclusion of the meeting, tie up the loose ends. Either summarize the general conclusion of the discussion or list the actions to be taken. Wrapping things up ensures that all participants agree on the outcome and it gives people a chance to clear up any misunderstandings. Before the meeting breaks up, briefly review who has agreed to do what by what date.

4. Role-Playing for Managers in Business Meetings
Planning your role ahead of the performance can help avoid these pitfalls. Good managers have a general meeting strategy as well as a specific plan for each individual occasion.
Start by defining what sort of meeting participant you typically are. Possible categories include:
Joker        who tries to break the ice or insert disguised barbs
Gatekeeper        (not always the leader) who tries to keep to the agenda
Devil's Advocate        who regularly challenges an emerging consensus
Critic        who sees the problems with others' ideas but has none better to offer
Agenda Setter        who regularly puts new ideas and issues on the table
Consensus Builder        who draws others' ideas together into a course of action
Cheerleader        who encourages any sign of progress
Mimic        who always echoes others' comments
Monomaniac        who rides the same hobby horse at every meeting
Outsider        whose comments and body language convey detachment or contempt
Leader        (not always the person running the meeting) Who all tacitly agree has the final word

        The Joker (爱开玩笑的人)
Employed well, this can be an especially useful role in meetings that tend toward tension or conflict. A witty observation can remind all the participants what they have in common-a shared desire for success or a collective obstacle. But this role should be employed only when you're sure it will have the right effect. Humor easily verges into sarcasm, and you don't want to be identified as the group cynic or the class clown. If you find yourself in a meeting with an inveterate Joker, be prepared to point out, gently, when the jokes are getting in the way of necessary progress.
        The Gatekeeper (守门人)
Try to play this role if you're leading a meeting. Identify an emerging consensus and get it on the record. Make sure specific tasks are assigned to accomplish it. If an issue appears unresolvable, point out that it's time to move on and look for solutions outside the session. If you're attending a meeting run by a Gatekeeper, don't let him shut down discussion before views crucial to your position are thoroughly aired.
        The Devil's Advocate (爱唱反调的人)
Sometimes, a self-satisfied meeting consensus needs to be challenged by a dose of reality. When necessary, this should be done crisply and succinctly. Often, pointing out how others will view your group's actions will help you shape a better policy or a more acceptable way to present it. Sometimes it may be wise to suggest that doing nothing is preferable to doing something half-baked. But don't let yourself get typecast as someone who enjoys argument for argument's sake. When dealing with a dedicated Devil's Advocate, it can sometimes help to say something like, "While Meg is always good at identifying pitfalls, I think we've taken her concerns into account here."
        The Critic (挑剔的人)
The Critic is related to the Devil's Advocate, but often has a more destructive agenda. Sometimes, people argue just because they don't want to see another succeed. Don't attack someone else's idea unless you're pretty sure you have a better one; otherwise you'll develop a reputation as a carper or, worse, a back-stabber, When dealing with a Critic, accommodate the strong points in his argument but be prepared to challenge either a specific criticism or a general pattern of obstruction.
        The Agenda Setter (设置日程的人)
No good meeting or series of meetings survives for long without one. Generally, this should be the Leader's role. To provide an agenda and to support materials ahead of time can move things along more quickly. But if you're the Leader, make sure you've included the legitimate concerns of all participants. If someone else is setting the agenda, whether it's the Leader or a creative colleague, get your ideas in ahead of the meeting so you're sure to get consideration and build support.
        The Consensus Builder (调解人)
Everyone should be prepared to play this role at almost every meeting. It's key to achieving leadership. The person who spots an emerging consensus and shows how it can be put into action will gain the gratitude of his colleagues, build alliances, and store up capital for the future. If you think an established Consensus Builder is on die wrong track, acknowledge her talent in this area and then play Devil's Advocate.
        The Cheerleader (拉拉队队员)
This is another role everyone should play from time to time; just don't overdo it. We all underestimate how much others crave praise and inclusion, and they should get them when they're deserved. An effective Cheerleader will point out the common ground between two apparently opposed positions and can evolve into a Consensus Builder. When possible, tie your comments to others' previous remarks and give credit where credit is due. Even if someone presents your idea as his own, consider that imitation is a form of flattery and that most participants will remember who raised the proposal first. Also, it never hurts to make the boss look good unless you risk becoming known as a flattering sycophant (or unless the boss is dead wrong).
        The Mimic (人云亦云的人)
Usually, this type is a failed Cheerleader. It's important to be willing to support others' good ideas, but avoid becoming a parrot. If you agree with someone, you can usually say so while at the same time adding value by fleshing out her ideas or describing how they can be implemented. If you encounter a persistent Mimic in meetings, you can often gently deflect the habit by saying, “Yes, Jane already made that point well, but we need to consider ....”
        The Monomaniac (偏执、固执的人)
Some people have one idea (or gripe) that they will push relentlessly at meeting after meeting. Soon their colleagues will be able to repeat every word of the set speech and will grow increasingly irritated at the wasted time. If you find yourself falling into this role, do one of two things: drop the predictable patter, or, if you're convinced your idea is a good one, sound out other participants individually to discover why it isn't catching fire. Perhaps there are insurmountable obstacles to achieving it, or perhaps you're pursuing it in the wrong forum. When confronted with a Monomaniac, be prepared to challenge him, but if his idea has some merit, suggest how it can be implemented more effectively.
        The Outsider (局外人)
Often in meetings, you'll encounter a participant who consciously or unconsciously signals her detachment from the proceedings. This is often demonstrated by silence or body language, and can be as simple as edging a chair back from the table. If you find yourself in this role, ask why. Is it because you regularly disagree with what's happening (in which case, perhaps you should get another job), or simply because you're shy and unwilling to participate? If it's the second, consider what more constructive roles you could play. When dealing with an Outsider, it's often productive to directly invite him into the discussion. It may turn out he has good ideas he's been reluctant to express.
        The Leader (领导者)
Leadership is usually earned, and is most often the result of playing the right roles at the right times over a long period. Almost every one of the above roles has its place; even the Monomaniac or the Outsider may eventually be proved right. Usually the Leader is the person who's running the meeting by virtue of experience and authority. But a wise administrator recognizes when another Leader is emerging in the meeting, and studies carefully why that's happening.
Remember, whatever role you're playing, few ever wished a meeting went on longer. Make your point and get out; your colleagues will be grateful. Also, avoid being predictable. Becoming more conscious of the roles you and your colleagues play can help you operate outside of the box. A Willingness to support an opponent's good idea, for example, can solidify your long-term reputation for wisdom and objectivity. In short, don't play any role all the time.

The Definition of Oral Presentations
As one typed of public speaking, oral presentation is a kind of mental dialogue between the speaker and the audience.
Oral presentations are almost always less structured than speeches, delivered with the help of visual aids, and are participative. Audiences often participate in oral presentations with comments and questions that may occur at any point.
Oral presentation is a kind of public speaking and therefore, communication is the nature of oral presentation.
Being an integral part of your business career, oral presentations will enhance your professional growth. Oral presentations play important roles in both a company’s internal and external communication systems.
2. Classification of Oral Presentations
Impromptu Speaking即兴式陈述: Impromptu presentations usually occur either at informal group meetings or at conferences when additional information is needed or when you are asked to say “a few words” without warning. They are spontaneous and informal.
Extemporaneous Speaking提纲式陈述: Extemporaneous speaking occurs when you have time to plan and prepare. It is a type of informal speaking, but it is delivered from notes or an outline.
Manuscript Speaking手稿式陈述: Manuscript speaking occurs when you decide to prepare completely for a presentation, writing down the exact words you will say. It is delivered from a full text.
Memorized Speaking脱稿式陈述/背诵式陈述: Memorized speaking occurs when you talk without a manuscript because you have memorized the information in it.
Task Design:
Classify the situations in the Lead-in Part into the four types of Oral Presentations.
3. Genre Features of Oral Presentations
Communicative Purposes: 口头陈述的交际目的大致可以分为四种:
        传递信息 To Inform 很多口头陈述的目的是传递信息,要求直接表述事实,但有时也需要去指导或告知别人。例如,讲座、产品更新会、科技论文研讨、测试程序结果的报告、会议陈述和一些课堂的口头陈述等。
        劝说To Persuade有些口头陈述的目的是改变观众的思想。这类口头陈述必须充满活力和激情,带动听众的情绪。如营销会、销售会议或听证会等。
        激励 To Motivate这类口头陈述多用激励语言,带有丰富的感情色彩,主要是激励听众进一步强化他们对于某一事业的认同感,更积极努力地实施相关措施。
        娱乐To Entertain以娱乐为目的的口头陈述通常是饭后的发言或者退休的聚会发言等。在有些场合,娱乐性的因素常常和信息性,劝说性的因素混合一起,比如晋升舞会、周年聚会等。
多数情况下,口头陈述同时包括以上几种目的。
Linguistic Features of Oral Presentation:
        简洁清楚 Concise and Clear简洁清楚的语言应该是口头陈述语言风格的第一要点,其原则包括:第一,用词应简洁,避免多余、毫无意义的词;第二,用词要具体和准确,避免模糊抽象的词语;第三,使用短音节的日常用语。任何口头陈述都要避免过度冗长,千万不要说客套的废话,或做过多与主题无关的阐释;第四,尽量使用短句,简单句,主动句,肯定句。
        准确生动 Accurate and Vivid准确生动的语言能够提高口头陈述的可信度,因此,要使用正确的语法,选择恰当具体的词语,避免使用俗语、习语或俚语,句子多用主动语态。
        适应听众 Adapted to the Audience在口头陈述中使用适合听众的语言十分重要。即使是同样的主题,也应根据不同情况决定适合的语言。不要在听众面前使用术语或者缩略语以及行业术语,应使用具体的例子和类比,或者听众本身可以接受的母语例子。
Structural Features of Oral Presentation:
口头陈述由三部分组成:开篇,正文,结尾。
        开篇IXXXoduction
开篇的功能 Functions of IXXXoduction:
        引起听众兴趣Attracting the Audience’s Attention
        明确话题 Specifying the Topic
        建立可信度Establishing the Credibility
        预示要点Previewing the Main Ideas
开篇的方式 Ways of Opening the Oral Presentations:
        醒目之语Startling Statement
        故事Narration or Anecdote
        问题Question
        引用Quotation
        幽默Humor
        正文Body
选择叙述模式Selecting Format
        时间顺序模式(Chronological Pattern): 一般从描述历史开始,到论述现在,最后以展望未来结束,常用于信息性口头陈述。
        空间顺序模式(Spatial Pattern): 根据空间位置组织材料,最常用的是由远及近或由近及远的方式,多用于信息性口头陈述,偶尔用于劝说性口头陈述。
        问题-原因-解决模式(Problem-Causes-Solution Pattern): 解释某问题的特征,确认原因,并建议解决方法。这种形式一般用于劝说性口头陈述。
        排除型模式(Excluding Alternatives Pattern): 解释某种问题的特征,先解释那些显而易见的方法,然后,说明这些方法不能解决问题的原因,最后,以讨论可行的解决方案来结尾。
        推理模式(Inductive Pattern): 首先解释具体的情况和原因,最后达成一个总体的结论和原则。
        演绎模式(Deductive Pattern): 首先建立一个总则,然后应用到各个具体的情况中,得到具体的结论。
信息的衔接和过渡 Cohesion and Coherence
口头陈述内容要体现要点之间的关系,必须依靠连接词来联系各个部分和要点。句子和段落之间使用连接词即可。要连接口头陈述的主要部分则须使用完整的句子或者段落。 每次转向下一个话题,要确保强调要点之间的联系。总结讲过的内容,然后再预示要提到的内容, 并使用路标词(the signpost)提醒听众来跟上陈述者的思路。
        结尾Conclusion
口头陈述的结尾和开头同样重要,因为这是听众注意力最集中的时候,这也是最后一次让听众记住要点的机会。结尾的方式主要有三种:
        总结要点。
        提出挑战、呼吁行动。
        激励听众。
Task Design:
Read the situations in the Lead-in part, choose one of the situations and write an effective opening and ending.
4. Techniques for Writing Oral Presentation
        确定总体目标Defining the General Purposes:确定总体目标是准备口头陈述的第一步。不论哪种口头陈述都具有交流的性质和意图,最终达到沟通的目的。除此之外,最好应该确定陈述者期待的口头陈述能达到的结果(defining your desired results)。
        确定话题和具体目标Identifying Topic and Specific Purposes:每一个口头陈述都有具体的目标。信息性口头陈述(informative speech)重在主体内容,而劝说性口头陈述( persuasive speech)则注重结果。需要注意以下几个问题:具体目的要用不定式短语,不能用一般短语或者问句;具体目的应限制为单一的意思;选择精确的词,避免含糊抽象的词语。
        分析听众的情况Analyzing the Audience: 听众的特点会影响口头陈述的形式和内容。听众的数量会影响口头陈述方式。听众的知识水平会影响口头陈述的内容。分析如年龄、性别、民族、教育状况、工作年限、专业、行业和工作职位等具体的信息。
        选择内容和组织信息 Selecting and Organizing Message陈述者应选择最令听众感兴趣的且能够很好的回答听众问题的信息。用提纲的形式组织内容。提纲用以提醒主要内容和顺序。可以选择三种方式设计提纲:词,短语和句子。提纲的内容应包括口头陈述的每个部分:总体目标(general purpose),话题(topic),具体目标(specific purpose)和主要观点(main points),开头(iXXXoduction),正文(body)和结尾(conclusion)。
        视觉辅助材料的种类 Types of Visual Aids:陈述者在口头陈述过程中可以使用文本和图式的视觉辅助材料。及其他视觉辅助手段:投影仪和透明胶片;电子讲稿;白板或黑板;翻转图;幻灯放映机;其他视觉辅助。 产品或材料的样品,比例模型,录音磁带, 影片剪辑,电影,电视和录像带,访谈等。
        口头陈述技巧 Techniques for Effective Delivery:
声音Voice:
        声音质量Voice Quality:声音是陈述者与听众沟通的主要渠道,陈述者应注意陈述时的声音质量。
        音量Volume:陈述者的声音大小、高低强弱,既是陈述内容的需要,也是陈述过程中必须注意的问题。
        语速和流利程度Speed and Fluency:速度要适中。看便条时不要停顿太长时间。 为了听众能理解要点可以做恰当的停顿,重复或解释。
        声音清晰Clarity
        发音Pronunciation口头陈述时要确保每个词发音准确。不要使用夸张的语调。
仪表 Appearance:陈述者的仪表包括体形、容貌、衣冠、发型、举止神态等。
眼神交流 Eye contact: 口头陈述时应该直视听众,用目光接触到房间每个角落的听众,但不要在某个人身上停留太长时间。
身体语言Body Language:
        手势 Gestures:使用手势来强调口头陈述的要点。手势也暗示出陈述者是紧张还是镇静。
        姿势 Posture:用姿势传递正确的信息。正确的姿势暗示了自信,对所讲话题的兴趣,对听众的尊重,反之亦然。
克服恐惧心理Overcoming Stage Fright:有经验的陈述者通过深呼吸,慢慢陈述,避免不必要的姿势和走动来缓解紧张情绪。微笑和集中精神在感兴趣的听众身上可以在口头陈述时帮助树立自信。
        处理问题 Dealing with the Questions:多数的口头陈述过程包括问答环节。当要向大量听众传达坏消息时可以避免问答环节。视对方的立场和反应给予明确具体的回复。
        分发材料 Distributing the Handouts:材料可以包括口头陈述题目,口头陈述的日期,口头陈述人姓名,顾客姓名,赞助口头陈述的单位。

Five Fundamentals of Business Writing
Organizing Routine and Good-News Messages
        Direct plan
When the message involves a straightforward request, or good news, or information the receiver has been waiting for, directness is the very best way to organize routine business messages for most American, Canadian, Australian, British, and New Zealand readers. It is also probably the best organization for Northern European readers.
Good-news or routine messages follow a deductive sequence--the message begins with the main idea. To present good-news and routine information deductively, begin with the major idea, followed by supporting details.

        Indirect plan
People of high-context cultures prefer the indirect plan or inductive pattern.

6. Organizing Bad-News Messages
    Bad-news messages can also be organized in two ways: direct approach and indirect approach.
Direct Plan        Indirect Plan
1. bad news
2. reasons
3. positive close        1. buffer
2. reasons
3. bad news
4. positive close
7. Organizing Persuasive Messages
AIDA structure for persuasive communication
        Attention
a. Reader benefit
b. Reader-interest theme
        Interest
a. Description details and data
b. Psychological appeals
c. Reader benefits
        Desire
a. Statement of request
b. Supporting data to help create reader’s desire to grant request
        Action
a. Clear statement of action
b. Easy action, dated when desirable
c. Special inducement
d. Reader benefit

Classification of Business Letters
        According to the type of the message, letters can be classified into routine letters, good-news letters, bad-news letters, and persuasive letters.

Routine Letters常规信息信函A routine letter contains a neutral message-the main idea is neither positive nor negative. The sender is sure the receiver will respond as the sender wants. Thus, the receiver does not need to be persuaded to do something.
Good-news Letters好消息信函A receiver will react favorably to a letter that contains good news.
Bad-news Letters坏消息信函A letter containing bad news conveys information that will disappoint the receiver. Letters that deny requests, decline to supply information, refuse credit, or reject a proposal belong to this type.
Persuasive Letters 劝说类信函A persuasive letter is a letter that you write to convince someone to agree with your side of an argument.
According to the functions, letters commonly used in business are request letters请求信, claim letters索赔信, credit letters信贷申请信, sales letters销售函, order letters订货函, invitation letters邀请函, thank-you letters感谢信, congratulation letters祝贺信 and so on.
Genre Features of Business Letters
Communicative Purposes:
商务信函的种类多样,但其交际目的不外乎以下几种:提供信息、索取信息、索赔、信贷申请、销售、订货、邀请、感谢、祝贺等。商务信函在达到这些交际目的的同时,还要实现保持和加强商业关系的目的。
Linguistic Features of Letters:
        Completeness(完整) :商务信函只有在涵盖了所有必要的信息之后,才算是完整的、有效的信函。信函中必须要确保所有要讨论的事项均已涉及、所有问题均已得到答复。
        Concreteness(具体):商务信函最基本的要求是具体、明确,不应笼统、抽象。因此,在商务信函写作中,要使用明确的事实(specific facts)和具体的数字(figures)。注意使用逼真、形象的词汇,正确运用修辞技巧等。
        Clarity(清楚):商务信函要确保读者能够准确地理解信函中所要表达的主要内容,因此,各种表述必须以清楚为第一要务,以避免产生歧义或误会。写作时,作者应使用简单易懂的词汇,注意修饰词语的位置,注意逻辑上的合理和结构的变化,注意信函的整体性(interity)和连贯性(coherence)。
        Conciseness(简洁):为了节省读写双方的时间,在不损害完整、具体、礼貌的前提下,商务信函应简明扼要,用尽量少的语言表达所陈述的内容。写作过程中,需要做到长话短说,避免啰嗦。应尽量使用常用词汇,避免怪词、难词、陈旧的术语(old letter phrases)。要避免无谓的重复,以增加句子和段落的有效性。通常句子的平均长度为10-20个词汇,段落不超过10行。
        Courtesy(礼貌):礼貌是商务信函重要的语言特点。礼貌有助于树立良好的职业道德形象,加强现有的商务关系,或建立新的商务关系。礼貌取决于诚意和尊敬,也是个人修养的体现。通过礼貌用语表现出对他人的尊重,使收信人能够理解寄信人的真诚与诚意,使沟通变得顺畅、和谐。
        Consideration(体谅):“客户至上”是商务信函写作的一个重要原则。为获取良好的沟通效果,寄信人应站在收信人的立场上,充分考虑对方的需要、期望、利益乃至困难等,促进双方的合作。在具体写作中,为了达到体谅的目的可以采取以收信人为中心的态度,即“You attitude”,并尽量采用积极的方式谈论问题。
        Correctness(准确):商务信函常常是合同和协议的基础,因此必须保持其准确性。否则会被收信人误解,甚至引起法律纠纷(law dispute)。要确保信函内容的准确,就要做到实事求是,使用准确的词语和数据,要正确地理解和使用商业术语。
Structural Features of Minutes:
        Formats of Business Letters商务信函的格式
常见的商务信函格式有四种:齐头式、半齐头式、混合式和缩行式。
        Full Block Format齐头式: 齐头式的特点是所有信函要素都在左边空白边缘(margin)顶格书写。每个要素之间以及正文的段落之间要间距一至两行。
        Semiblock Format半齐头式: 在半齐头式信函中,段落不缩进,回信地址、日期、结尾敬辞和签名位于中间偏右,其他部分每行开头都与左边空白边缘对齐。
        Indented Format缩行式: 缩行式中的信头、信内地址在换行时,下一行要比上一行向右缩进2—3个字母的位置。每个段落的第一行,从左边空白边缘往右缩进3—8个字母的位置,通常为4个字母。
        Modified Format混合式: 混合式是半齐头式和缩行式的混合。即在半齐头式的基础上,段落首行缩进3—6个字母的位置。因此在混合式中,段落首行缩进,回信地址、日期、结尾敬辞和签名位于中间偏右,其他部分每行开头都与左边空白边缘对齐。

        Essential Parts of Business Letters商务信函的构成要素
商务信函通常由七个主要部分构成,即信头(letterhead)、日期(date)、信内地址(inside address)、称呼(salutation)、正文(body)、结尾敬辞(complimentary close)、签名(signature)。除此之外,还有一些需根据实际要求增加的部分,例如,参考编号(reference)、经办人姓名(attention)、事由标题(subject)、辨认代号(identification)、附件(enclosure)、副本抄送(carbon copy)、附言(postscript)等。
        Letterhead信头: 信头提供了写信人的地址,使收信人知道如何回信,因此信头也叫回信地址(return address)或信外地址(outside address)。信头可以包括公司名称(company name)、街道地址(street)、城市(city)、邮编(postcode)、电话号码(telephone number)、传真号码(fax number)、电子邮件地址(e-mail address)等。在街道地址中如果出现一位或两位数字,可以用单词拼写。如果是两位数字以上的,则使用阿拉伯数字表示。
        Date日期: 日期必不可少,可以满足以后的查询需要。日期通常写在信头下方两行处,一般位于信笺的右上角,采用齐头式时位于左上角。日期的常规书写顺序是月、日、年(英国式),或日、月、年(美国式)。日期中的年份必须要用阿拉伯数字写全,年份前必须要用逗号与月份和日期隔开。月份要用英文拼写,可以使用全拼也可以采用标准的拼写。但 “May”, “June”和”July”不能简写。日即可以用基数词也可以用序数词来表示,日期和月份间不能用逗号隔开。
        Inside Address信内地址: 信内地址是收信人的地址,与信封地址相同,信内地址起到记录备查的作用。英文书信不论使用什么格式,信内地址都写在信纸的左上方,与日期至少间隔一行,与信头间隔3-6行。信内地址由收信人姓名、收信人所在公司或机构名称、街道或邮箱、城市、州和邮编构成。收信人的地址应从小到大,分作数行,依次书写。书写的顺序为:收信人姓名,收信人头衔、职务,公司、组织名称,门牌和路名,城市、省/州名、国名、邮编。
        Salutation称呼: 称呼写在信内地址下方,与信内地址或经办人间隔一行,顶格书写,所有单词首字母大写,后常用逗号或冒号。称呼一般在头衔或尊称后面加上收信人的姓。如果只知道收信人的职务,而不知道姓名和性别,可以把职务看作姓名使用。称呼一定要和信内地址中的收信人信息一致。
        Body正文: 各类信函的正文写法大体一致。正文分为三部分:开篇(opening)、主体部分(main body)和结尾(closing)。正文与称呼隔一行书写,一般分成若干段落,段与段之间间隔一行。
        开篇(opening)是信函的第一句话或第一段。根据写作目的和读者的不同而有所变化。大多数信函在开篇部分都需要提供信函的写作背景以及写作目的。开篇常使用一些客套话(common letter phrases)。如果是首次通信,需要在开篇部分说明写信的目的。
        主体部分(main body)是信函的主要内容,主要是提供信息、说明情况、请求解决问题等。可能仅为几句话,也可能有若干段。不管长短,主体部分都需要围绕写作目的。
        结尾部分(closing)总结信函内容,表达谢意、祝愿,请求合作、帮助,期待回复等。结尾要自然并与写作目的相契合。
        Complimentary Close结尾敬辞: 结尾敬辞是一种结束信函的礼仪方式,相当于口语中的“再见”,或是汉语信函中的“此致敬礼”。结尾敬辞与正文间隔一行书写。在缩行式信函中,位于信笺中间,与日期对齐,在齐头式信函中,左对齐。与称呼不一样,结尾敬辞中的第一个单词首字母大写,其余单词的首字母小写,末尾用逗号与下文隔开。
        Signature签名: 商务信函的签名非常重要,尤其是具有合约性质的信函。每一封信函都必须有手写签名,签名者对信函中的内容要承担一定的法律责任。为了防止签名潦草,难以辨认,常在签名下打印署名者的姓名。手写签名位于结尾敬辞和打印署名中间。
Techniques for Writing Letters
        Techniques for Writing Routine and Good-news letters常规信息信函/好消息信函的写作技巧
日常书信往来主要是各种常规(routine)的请求信和答复信。因为可以预见到读者的反应是积极的,所以,此类信函不需要特别的劝说技巧(persusasive techniques),或是进行铺垫(buffer)。
        Techniques for Writing Bad-news letters坏消息信函的写作技巧
坏消息会使收信人失望、生气、甚至是愤怒。考虑到收信人的情绪,作者通常会使用归纳法书写此类信函。
(一)开篇铺垫Buffering the Opening
铺垫是减少冲击的一种方法。铺垫起到过渡作用,既避免直接提及坏消息,又不会让收信人误以为即将读到好信息。铺垫的方法是使用中性(neutral)但有意义(meaningful)的句子使读者保持阅读。铺垫应该是相关的(relevant)、简洁的(concise),并能自然地过渡到解释部分。使用什么形式的铺垫,视具体情况而定。下面是一些常用的铺垫方式:
最好的消息(best news):信息中最好的那部分内容作为开始。
赞扬(compliment):称赞收信人所取得的成就或作出的努力,但要真诚且坦白。
感谢(appreciation):为提供物品、信任、作出反馈等表示感谢。
赞同(agreement):使用双方都赞同的与内容相关的句子。
实事(facts):用客观事实来引出坏消息。
理解(understanding):表示关心对方。
(二)解释原因Presenting the Reasons
坏消息信函中最重要的部分是解释为什么必须要有一个负面决定(negative decision)。为最大限度地降低坏消息对收信人的消极影响,可以考虑以下方法或注意事项:
解释(explaining):如果拒绝的原因不涉及保密,并且不会使自己承担法律责任或后果,可以解释具体原因。
提及其他好处(citing benefits):如果坏消息存在某个方面使对方受益的可能性,则对方对坏消息的接受态度会发生变化。
解释公司政策(explaining company policy):收信人反感空泛地利用政策表达拒绝之意。因此,写信人应对公司政策、规定作出合情合理的解释,以表示对收信人的关心和重视。
表明该决定是认真和公正的(treating the matter seriously and fairly):解释原因时,应使收信人明白写信人是经过认真思考和调查后才作出了不带偏见的决定的。收信人在感到他们的要求得到倾听和公正对待后,会更容易接受令人失望的消息。
(三)缓解冲击Cushioning the Bad News
虽然无法阻止坏消息带来的失望,但写信人可以运用比较策略的手段舒缓坏消息带给收信人的痛苦乃至不幸。可以尝试以下方法:
策略地传达坏消息(positioning the bad news stratigically):不直接表述、突出坏消息,而是将坏消息夹在其他表述句子中。不要将坏消息安排在段落的开头或结尾,也可以使用从句。
使用被动语态(using the passive voice):主动语态突出人,而被动语态则突出行为,通过被动语态可以减少人为色彩。必要时,可以把被动语态和从句相结合。
运用积极的表述方式(accentuating the positive):说明能做什么,而不是不能做什么,以增加对收信人的说服力。
对拒绝的决定作暗示(implying the refusal):有时,不需要直接说出拒绝的话。通常,在读过解释之后,拒绝的结果已经确定无疑了。因此,明确的拒绝可能是没有必要的。
提供补偿或另外的选择(suggesting a compromise or an alternative):如果作者做出了适当的补偿、提供了其他的选择,那么拒绝就不那么令人沮丧了。
(四)愉快结尾Closing Pleasantly
在体贴地解释了坏消息之后,用令人愉悦的语言结束信函,同时表达善意。结尾应该具有个性化,并可以包含如下信息:展望未来、其他选择、良好祝愿、促销信息等。
展望未来(forward look):对未来商业合作前景予以展望,说明希望所在。
其他选择(alternative):如果有其他选择,以此结尾。
良好祝愿(good wishes):表达对收信人的良好祝愿。
促销信息(resale or sales promotion):如果坏消息不是最糟,可以考虑使用促销信息结束信函。
        Techniques for Writing Sales Letter销售函的写作技巧
(一)吸引收信人注意力的方法Techniques for Gaining Attention
    销售函写作、传递的目的是销售某种、某些商品,因此,必须想方设法引起收信人的注意。可尝试以下方法:
涉及引人注目的标题
提出问题
提供奖励
提及引人注目的事件或数据
使收信人感到独一无二或与众不同
明确某种需要
提供解决问题的方法
奇闻轶事(anecdote)
(二)引起读者兴趣的方法Techniques for Arousing Interest
引起收信人的兴趣有两种方法:强调收信人受益(reader's benefits)和做出情感和理性的诉求(emotional and rational appeal)。理性的诉求使用推理和智慧,将卖点转化为省钱、增效、充分利用资源等结论。理性诉求通常适用于贵重、耐用,或对于健康、安全、财务有重要影响的商品。感性诉求和地位、自尊和感官有关系,一般适用于便宜的消费品。好的销售函常把两种诉求结合在一起。此外,还应关注收信人、读者的消费情趣、收入水平、年龄结构、消费习惯以及文化品位等因素,这些因素直接制约着收信人的兴趣。
(三)激发收信人购买愿望的方法Techniques for Stimulating Desire
1.处理价格问题Dealing with Price
营销专家采用各种各样的方法减少读者的抵触情绪,激发购买欲望。当价格成为引发抵触的原因时,可以考虑以下措施:
激发读者购买欲望后,再提及价格。
使用较小单位显示价格,如单价。
说明在较长的时间内可以省多少钱。
与竞争对手比较价格。
2.处理其他抵触情绪的手段Dealing with Other Objections
除了价格因素之外,还要考虑其他抵触性因素,并尽可能地将这些因素转化为卖点。常见的方法主要有:
奖励(prize)
退货担保(money-back guarantee)
免费试用或提供样品(free trial or sample)
性能测试(performance tests)
(四)鼓励收信人采取行动的方法Techniques for Encouraging Action
鼓励收信人采取行动的方法是:确定希望收信人实施的具体行为,提供具体的条件和刺激物,方便收信人作出反应,可以采取以下方法:
1. 确定具体行为Identifying Specific Action
给收信人明确的指示。通常是采用命令(imperitive)的方式。
2. 利用刺激物Using Inducements
根据设计和策略的不同,刺激物可以在信的结尾出现,也可以作为整篇销售信的核心。常见的方法有:
赠送礼物(offer a gift)
各种有吸引力的承诺(promise an incentive):有奖销售、捆绑式销售、积分式销售、折扣销售等
限制优惠的数量(limit the offer)
设定截止日期(set a deadline)
满意担保(guarantee satisfaction)
3. 方便收信人作出回应Aiding Readers’ Response
为了让收信人更容易做出反回应,写信人常采用以下方法:
很多销售函都附带提前写好地址、支付邮资的信封或订货单,可以方便收信人作出如下反应:邮寄支票、提供信用卡帐户和号码和有效日期、或填充信息和签名后寄回。
有些销售函还提供免费电话、视频、电子邮件方便读者咨询。
Task Design:
Fill in the blanks
(1). When writing routine and good-news messages, business people usually use __________ writing pattern.
(2). When writing bad-news messages, business people usually use ___________ writing pattern.
(3). When opening bad-news messages, business people can praise the receiver’s accomplishments, organization, or efforts. This is to ________ the bad news.
(4). The most important part of a bad-news letter is the section that explains why a __________decision is necessary.  
(5). When explaining reasons business people should choose ________ words carefully.
(6). When presenting the bad news, business people should use _________ voice, because this voice verbs enable the writer to depersonalize an action.
(7). A refusal is not so depressing for the sender or the receiver if a suitable__________ is available.
(8). When customers complain primarily about food products or small consumer items, companies often send coupons, samples, or gists to restore confidence and to promote future business. This method is called ____________.
(9). “A free trip to Hawaii is just the beginning!”. This is an _________ that is used to gain attention in sales letters.
(10). “You’ll receive a free calculator with your first order.” This is a technique for encouraging actions in sales letters--_____________.
Task Answers:
(1) direct (2) indirect (3) buffer (4) negative (5) positive (6) passive (7) compromise, substitute, or alternative (8) freebies (9) offer (10) offering a gift
Practical Exercises
  Practise writing different types of letters.
VI.I.        Assignments
1. Find a sample letter from books and analyze the elements of letter.
2. Compare the difference of adjustment letter, credit denial letter and sales letter.
VII Samples of Business Letters
信函的要素
453 East Main Street
Apartment I-E                         信头
Decatur, IL 93102                     
April 14, 2001                          日期

Ace Audio, Inc.
859 Fordham Avenue                    信内地址
Westlake, NY 20940

Subject: Ace DX899 CD Player            事由标题

Dear Ace:                              称呼
                                 
Please send me one Ace DX 899 CD Player unit for use with my JVCL-A31 amplifier. According to your customer representative, Mr. Walsh, these units are compatible. Please confirm this with your shipment.
正文
Enclosed is a personal check for $253.75, including $8.75 for parcel post shipping charge.

I would appreciate your mailing the CD Player by the end of this month. Thanks for your attention.

Yours truly,                                  结尾敬辞
(Signature)                                   签名
Sandra Mason                     

Enclosure: Check                              附件




(Sources:Maris Roze; Simon Maxwell TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION in the Age of the Internet [M]. Prentice Hall Inc. 2002 p. 159 )
请求信
Dear Sir:

Please send me product information and a price list for your Victoria 9070 photocopier.

I’m particularly interested in the color capability of the machine, as advertised in this month’s issue of Photography Today.

Thank you for your help. I don’t wish to be contacted by a salesperson, at this time. I will, however, get in touch with you if I have further questions after reading the material you send.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Arthur H. Bell. Business Communication—Process And Practice [M]. Scott, Foresman and Company Glenview, Illinois London, England, 1987  p.251)
同意请求的答复信
Dear Mr. Psenka:

Congratulations on your transfer to the Paris office. I am happy that we will be working together and am pleased to answer your questions.
        The franc has been declining against the U.S. dollar steadily for several weeks, and economists are predicting that this trend will continue. Therefore, I suggest you immediately purchase the francs you will need for the first several months. You can easily keep in touch with the fluctuating exchange rates by reviewing the “Money Rates” section of The Wall Street Journal each day.
        English is used most often in the office. Becoming familiar with the French culture, customs, and economy will be beneficial. Several guidebooks are available from the director of International Operations at the home office. I recommend that you read these books thoroughly and share them with your wife and children, too.
Please fax me your travel plans, and I will make arrangements to meet you at the airport and help you get settled in your new home.
部分同意所提请求的答复信
Dear Sir:

In response to your November 8, 1999 letter, a copy of the report “Shear Properities of Long Columns Subjected to Seismic Loads” is enlcosed. Unfortunately, because the information in “Shear Properties of intermediate Columns Subjected to Seismic Loads” is no longer current, we do not keep copies of it on file. However, if you are still interested in obtaining a copy, this report should be available at nominal cost from Universal Documents, 800-133-8765. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.

Please contact me if you have any questions.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Jerome N. Borowick. Technical Communication and Its Applications[M]. Prentice Hall Inc. 2000 p. 180 )
拒绝所提请求的答复信
Dear Mr. Mark Stevenson:

The Mangement Council and I are extremely pleased with the leadership you have provided in setting up live video transmission to our regional offices. Because of your geniune professional commitment, Mark, I can understand your desire to attend the conference of the Telecommunication Specials of America September 23 to 28 in Atlanta.

The last two weeks in September have been set aside for budget planning. As you and I know, we have only scratched the surface of our teleconferencing projects for the next five yeas. Since you are the specialist and we rely heavily on your expertise, we need you here for those planning sessions.

If you are able to attend a similar conference in the spring and if our work loads permit, we will try to send you then. You are a valuable player, Mark, and I am grateful you are on our MIS team.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Mary Ellen Guffey. Business Communication: Process & Product [M]. South-Western College Publishing, 2000 p. 295)
索赔信
Dear Sir:

I am returning the pair of shoes that I received from you today and would like you to send the style that I ordered.

The shoes that I ordered were style No. 11550, size 5 AA, Black. The shoes I received were the wrong style, size, and color. I ordered these shoes three weeks before for a special occasion. But know I will not be able to wear them for that special occasion.

If you are unable to send me the pair of shoes I ordered, please return my money in full. I am eager to wear these new shoes, and I look forward to your taking care of this matter quickly.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Bonnie D. Phillips. Business Communication [M]. Delmar Publisher Inc. 1983 p. 150 )
理赔信
Dear Mr. Bronski:

You may choose six rose bushes as replacements, or you may have a full cash refund for the roses you purchased last year.

The quality of our plants and the careful handling they have received assure you of healthy, viable roses for your garden. Even so, plants sometimes fall without apparent cause. That’s why every plant carries a gurantee to grow and to establish itself in your garden.

Along with this letter is a copy of our current catalog for you to select six new roses or reorder the favorites you chose last year. Two of our previous selections—Red Velvet and Rose Princess—were last season’s best-selling roses. For fragrance and old-rose charm, you might like to try the new David Austin English Roses. These enormously popular hybrids resulted from crossing full-petaled old garden roses with modern repeat-flowering shrub roses.

To help you enjoy your roses to the fullest, you’ll also receive a copy of our authoritative Home Gardener’s Guide to Roses. This comprehensive booklet provides easy-to-follow planting tips as well as sound advice about sun, soil, and drainage requirements for roses.

To receive your free replacement order, just fill out the order form inside the catalog and attach the enclosed certificate. Or return the certificate, and you will receive a full refund of the purchase price.

The quality of Rose World plants reflects the expertise of over a century of hybridizing, growing, harvesting, and shipping top-quality garden stock. Your complete satisfaction is our primary goal. If you’re not happy, Mr Bronski, we’re not happy. To ensure your satisfaction and your respect, we maintain our 100 percent guarantee policy.

Sincerely,                                      
(Sources:Mary Ellen Guffey. Business Communication: Process & Product [M], South-Western College Publishing, 2000  p. 198 )

拒绝索赔的信函
Dear Mr. Manning:

Thank you for your letter of December 2 in which you described a most unfortunate cooking incident. We are glad you weren’t injured.

While we are not able to pay the amount you suggest, we will replace your Presley Cooker at absolutely no charge to you. Please send your damaged cooker to us for replacement.

Our product engineers will inspect the returned cooker to discover the cause of your accident. When you receive your new cooker, may we remind you to read the accompanying directions—particularly those involving temperature coXXXol—before using the cooker. Steam cooking requires special precautions.

You can count on receiving years of satisfying service from your new cooker. Please contact us if we can be of help in any way.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Arthur H. Bell. Business Communication—Process And Practice[M], Scott, Foresman and Company Glenview, Illinois London, England,1987  p. 307 )
信贷申请授予信
Dear Mr. Ortega:

After reviewing your application, we are happy to approve your request for a 90-day credit limit with us for $10,000.

Our credit agreement, enclosed for your approval and signature, provides that wholesale orders may be charged to your credit account for a period not to exceed 90 days. Interest on the unpaid balance during that time will be 18 percent per year. We request that you do not exceed your credit limit of $10,000. You will find additional terms and conditions of this agreement, including billing and payment procedures, in the “Credit Purchase’s Handbook” we have enclosed for you.

We welcome you as a new customer and look forward to your company’s continued growth and success. We’ll do our part to provide you with the very best in fine lighting products.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Arthur H. Bell. Business Communication—Process And Practice[M], Scott, Foresman and Company Glenview, Illinois London, England,1987  p. 290 )

信贷申请拒绝信
Dear Ms. Margolis:

We genuinely appreciate your application of January 12 for a Fashion Express credit account.

After receiving a report of your current credit record from Experian, we find that credit cannot be extended at this time. To learn more about your record, you may call an Experian credit counselor at (212) 356-0922. We’ve arranged for you to take advantage of this service for 60 days from the date of this letter at no charge to you.

Thanks, Ms. Margolis, for the confidence you’ve shown in Fashion Express. We invite you to continue shopping at our stores, and we look forward to your reapplication in the future.

Sincerely,
订货函
Dear Mr. O’Neill:

Please ship by UPS fourteen (14) model #401 reels, as advertised at $51.20 each in your 198_ Summer Wholesale Catalog.

We understand from your catalog that orders in excess of $500 receive a 10 percent discount and free shipping. Thank you for applying those bonuses to this order.

As a longtime customer of yours, we appreciate the fast service you always provide. We would like to receive shipment of this order no later than August 10.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Arthur H. Bell. Business Communication—Process And Practice[M], Scott, Foresman and Company Glenview, Illinois London, England,1987  p. 255 )
订货确认函
Dear Ms. McNeil:

On or before May 24, 2009, we will be pleased to ship twenty-seven art posters from our series “Spring Morning” to your Miami headquarters.

The posters will arrive by United Parcel, billed C.O.D. Although we take extreme precautions against damage in the packaging of our framed posters, you should check all packages you receive with care. If you discover damage, please notify us immediately, including the insurance number marked on the damaged package.

We trust that you will find pleasure in seeing varieties of “Spring Morning” in your corporate offices. When making plans for decoration elsewhere in your facilities, please consider the beautiful oil paintings and watercolors now available in our fall catalog. These investment-quality art pieces would be a handsome addition to your growing collection of quality works.

Our sincere thanks and best wishes.

Cordially,
(Sources:Arthur H. Bell. Business Communication—Process And Practice[M], Scott, Foresman and Company Glenview, Illinois London, England,1987  p.279 )
订货问题处理函
Dear Mr. Ronzelli:

Your were smart to reserve a block of 500 Space Stations, which we have been holding for you since August. As the holidays approach, the demand for all our learning toys, including Space Station, is rapidly increasing.

Toy stores from Florida to California are asking us to ship these Space Stations. One reason the Space Station is moving out of our warehouses so quickly is its assortment of gizmos that children love, inlcuding a land rover vehicle, a shuttle craft, a hovercraft, astronauts, and even a robotic arm. As soon as we receive your deposit of $4,000, we’ll have this popular item on its way to your stores. Without a deposit by September 20, though, we must release this block to other retailers. Use the enclosed envelope to send us your check immediately. You can begin showing this fascinating Live and Learn toy in your stores by November 1.

Please visit our Web site, which replaces our paper catalog, for pictures, descriptions, and prices of other popular Live and Learn toys. We were voted one of the best on-line toy stores—with higher ratings than even FAO Schwarz, Etoys, and all the biggest. We look forward to your check as well as to continuing to serve all your toy needs.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Mary Ellen Guffey.  Business Communication:Process & Product [M], South-Western College Publishing, 2000 p. 299 )
销售函
Dear Mr. Deal:

Go ahead! Try to rip it apart. Give it a good tug and notice how it’s made for rough-and-tumble treatment. The people at CouXXXy Folks Meat are so enthusiastic about our packaging that they just tripled their monthly order.

WE CAN CREATE A PACKAGE FOR YOU THAT MEETS YOUR NEEDS PRECISELY.

No matter what products you package, if they are not packaged properly, your are not going to get the steady increase in sales you want. Not only must packaging be sturdy, it must attract the customer’s eye, too. The enclosed sample does both.

Take a look at your current packaging. Isn’t it time to explore ways to increase you share of the market through better packaging? A uniqe, custom-made package could be the answer to production and sales problems. Find out how by asking for our new booklet “Today’s Packaging Solutions.” It’s FREE. Simply phone 1-800-123-4567.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Louis E. Boone; David L. Kurtz; Fudy R. Block. Contemporary Business Communication. [M] Prentice Hall International, Inc. 1997 p.290 )
邀请函
Dear Dr. Coluto:

As a plastics engineer and member of the American Materials Society, I have read of your many significant coXXXibutions to the field of plastics technology. Presently, my chapter is preparing for its silver anniversary dinner meeting and would like you to be our guest speaker to help keep us current on the latest developments in the field of your reasearch.

The dinner meeting will be at the Concord Hotel in Phoenix, Arizona, on July 19 at 7 P.M. We would be pleased to make the hotel reservations for you and to reimburse you for all expenses.

We hope you will accept our invitation and look forward to hearing from you by May 7.

Sincerely,
(Sources:Jerome N. Borowick. Technical Communication and Its Applications[M]. Prentice Hall Inc. 2000 p. 185 )
感谢信
Dear Mrs. Green:

My daughter has written to tell me that you have been very kind to her during her stay in New York.

My husband and I deeply appreciate your courtesy, and we do hope you’ll come to stay together with us for a few days when you are in Beijing.

Thank you for your kindness to Lin Fang.

Sincerely yours,                                       
(Sources:廖瑛。《实用英语应用文写作》。中南大学出版社 2003年 第77页。 )
祝贺信
Dear Dr. Harmon:

My warm congratulations to you on your election as president of the the state medical association. It’s fine tribute from your colleagues, and a reward you richly deserve for your many years of splendid service to the profession and to the people of the state.

I can’t think of any man who would have been a better choice. My very best wishes to you!

                                               Sincerely yours,
Definition of Memos
Memorandum, also called memo or internal memo, is a kind of simple and efficient internal communication within a business organization. Memos can be sent via hard copy (on paper) or via e-mail (electronically).
2. Classification of Business Memos
在日常交往中,人们会使用到各类备忘录,其类型一般包括以下三种:商务备忘录(business memos)、会议纪要性备忘录(memos of minutes synopsis)和法律公文式备忘录(memos of legal documents)。其中,商务备忘录作为一种常见的文书形式,为人们广泛使用。依据不同的划分标准,商务备忘录种类各异。
按照文体形式,可以分为:正式备忘录(formal memos)和简化备忘录(simplified memos);按照传递载体,可以分为:打印备忘录(hard-copy memos)和电子备忘录(electronic memos);按照体裁类型,可以分为:
信息类备忘录(informative memos)--- it outlines the facts and then requests the reader’s actions.
要求类备忘录(request memos)--- it aims to ask the receiver for information or action.
回复类备忘录(response memos)--- it provides the audience with desired information.
劝说类备忘录(persuasive memos)--- it engages the reader’s interest before issuing a directive
Genre Features of Business Memos
Communicative Purposes:
商务备忘录的交际目的大致归纳为三点:
1.        提供记录(offering records)。备忘录用来记录公司制定或修改的规定、决议和政策,便于日后查询参考;
2.        传递信息(conveying information)。备忘录还用来将记录的内容传递给相关人员或通报项目进展情况等;
3.        提出指示、请求和建议(giving direction, request and proposal)。公司的管理者常以备忘录形式传递指令,或就某一计划项目提出建议。

Linguistic Features of Business Memos:
        清晰性(clarity)。备忘录应做到主题突出,层次分明,可读性强。为了清晰地表达内容,有时需附有范例、说明、图示等;
        准确性(correctness)。备忘录必须以准确的语言表达正确、完整的主题;
        简洁性(conciseness)。备忘录的功能和目的之一是为了方便交流,应避免使用冗长、修饰性的文字,做到直截了当、意义明确,便于阅读;
        客观性(objectiveness)。备忘录是一种公务文件,撰写时应注意遣词造句的客观性,避免使用带有个人感情色彩、个人见解的词语,尽量采用中立、客观的语气;
        礼貌性(courtesy)。撰写备忘录应本着真诚体贴、有礼有节、不卑不亢的态度,以婉转、积极,得当等方法进行写作。
Structural Features of Memos:
        Title标题部分
备忘录的标题仅为一个词 “MEMO”或 “MEMORANDUM”,或内部备忘录(Internal Memorandum),办公室间备忘录(Interoffice Memorandum),位于首页正中。一般情况下,在印制好的备忘录专用纸张上,标题一般位于公司名称和徽标(logo)下方。
        Heading开头部分
备忘录的开头与标题之间空两行,包括收件人(To)、发件人(From)、日期(Date)和事由(Subject)四部分。其格式布局一般采用纵向垂直和横向水平两种。


MEMORANDUM

TO:        Frank Connors, Security Manager
FROM:     Jack Victors, Security Supervisor
DATE:     15th March, 2007
SUBJECT:  Incident Report-Damage to Medical Equipment


MEMORANDUM


TO: Frank Connors,         DATE: 15th March, 2007
Security Manager
FROM: Jack Victors,        SUBJECT: Incident Report
Security Supervisor            -Damage to Medical Equipment


        Body正文部分
备忘录的正文部分是其主体部分,即信息内容。依据其主题内容,正文部分的篇幅可短至一两句,也可长达几页。如果涉及两个主题,为避免使备忘录过长的话,可将其变成一个报告,并附带一份备忘录进行简要说明。
        Notations 注释部分
多数情况下,备忘录最后会附有与内容相关的各种表格、图表等注释,以证实所提供的信息真实、可靠,且言之有据。同时,要提及所附加的附件,并在最后加上一句话以表明附件内容。例如:
Attachment(s)/Enclosure: Several Complaints about Product, January, 2006
如果备忘录由助理或秘书经手的,起草人和助理都应标注他们的姓名缩写。前者以大写字母的形式出现,后者以小写字母的形式出现。例如:
EIB: pjc
IMK/pjc
当备忘录要分发给其他人,或其副本(copy notation)要发送给多名商业伙伴或其他有关当事人,并列举这些收件人的姓名。如下面的例子:
Distribution: Jeffrey Jones
C/ CC: Jeffrey Jones
Task Design:
1. What are the linguistic features of business memos?
2. Business memos consist of four parts, such as ________, _________, body and ______.
3. A memo can give __________, convey __________, extend congratulations, make a report and respond to a request.
4. Techniques for Writing Memos
        Techniques for Writing Memos(商务备忘录的写作技巧)
        开头部分中 “to”, “from”, “date”和“subject”可全部大写,也可以只大写首个字母。这一组词用作标题时,可用冒号,也可不用标点。
        备忘录所有的内容通常左对齐(the left margin)。
        正文部分,在事由或主题行后两倍行距开始。
        如备忘录不止一页时,应在第二页左上角标注收件人,日期和页码。
        字号、下划线、黑体以及斜体的使用和调整,可以使开头部分和重要信息更加醒目;
        列举数字序号,可使读者更容易浏览信息。但需要注意的是,列举要符合语法规范;
        发件人签署备忘录通常使用姓名缩写,或名字,或完整的姓名;
        需要时,将打字员姓名的首字母写在正文结束空两行的位置;
        需要时,将附件写在打字员姓名的首字母下面空两行的位置。
        Informative Memos(信息类备忘录)信息类备忘录通常用来传递或解释公司的政策、方针和公告等。作为决策性的文件(decision-making documents),信息类备忘录的结构和语言必须清楚、简洁。此外,还可以借助一些辅助手段,使所传递的信息更加准确、清晰。
        Request Memos(要求类备忘录)要求类备忘录语气应该体现鼓励合作、彬彬有礼的内容。一般使用演绎法直接表述,收件人可以直接知道对方的要求;但如果预料到收件人会抵制所提出的要求,那么可用归纳法间接表达。
        Response Memos(回复类备忘录)许多备忘录来往都是针对具体文件作出的回复, 回复类备忘录具有一定的针对性。当撰写此类备忘录的时候,可按照以下三个步骤进行:(1)收集所有必需的信息(collecting information);(2)组织整理看法和观点(organizing ideas);(3)制定一个涵盖要点的概括性大纲(planning an outline)。
        Persuasive Memos(说服类备忘录)管理部门的命令,下层给管理部门的建议,或者在同事之间横向流动的建议都可以用说服类备忘录撰写。
Task Design:
1. How do you summarize the writing approaches of business memo?
2. Please illustrate the difference between request memos and persuasive memos.
Practical Exercises
Suppose you are the Manager of a beverage company. A new employee, Janice Mason, is joining your company on 9th June. Write a short memo to your office administrator, which includes the following points.
Saying who is staring work and when;
Telling him what Janice Mason’s desk should be put;
Suggesting where Janice Mason’s job will be.
I.        Assignments
1. to review the key points of the chapter
2. to complete the exercises of the textbook
VII. Samples of Business Memos
Informative Memos
CeXXXal Bank Corporation
412 West CeXXXal
Fullerton, CA 92632-1412
714/555-4500  Fax:714/55-6328
MEMORANDUM

TO: Tom Harrison
FROM: Angela Chin
DATE: January 28, 2007
SUBJECT: Profit of the Rustin Branch

The profit of the Rustin Branch for 2007 was $22,850. The gross income for the branch was $151, 00, and the total of goods returned was $13,500. Although the profit margin is not as high as in other branches, sales in this branch are growing quite fast. Profit for this branch next year should be excellent.

The following pie chart illustrates the profit of the branch in dollars and in percentages.

(Source: 唐述宗 徐钟译注. 实用办公室英语 [M]. 上海: 上海教育出版社, 2002. p 160)

Request Memos
MEMO

To: Ms. Lewis
From: Tommy Zhang, Personnel Manager
Date: June 7th, 2005
Subject: Evaluation of Fork Truck Drivers

Would you please make a brief written evaluation of each of your fork truck drivers, covering the following points:
        Description of duties;
        Performance rating for each of the duties;
        Outstanding weaknesses and strengths.
Rank performance form a high of 4 to a low of 1. Number 4 is consistent performance above the position’s requirements.

Please have these ready for my review by November 22, 2005. We will discuss the ratings on December 12 and set up a program for performance improvement.
A prompt replay will be appreciated.
(Source:管春林. 国际商务英语写作 [M]. 杭州: 浙江大学出版社, 2006. p215)

MEMO

TO:       Director
FROM:   Jane Hunter
DATE:    April 21, 2004
SUBJECT: Electronics Convention in San Diego

May I have your permission to attend the “Wireless Communications Summit Forum” cosponsored by China Institute of Communications and Texas Instrument in Beijing on May 16-19?

This year’s theme is “Making Wireless” (see program attached). As you will note, there will be various presentations on the uses of wireless products and other electronic equipment. Of particular interest to me is the panel “The Dynamic Wireless Market in China”. Equally fascinating will be the thirty exhibits featuring hardware and software supplied by most of the leading electronics distributors.

I estimate that my expenses would amount to 2,000 Yuan, for travel, hotel, meals, etc. I honestly think it will be worth that amount if we can get a deeper insight into the applications of wireless instruments to our program.
(Source:王元歌. 商务英语信函写作 [M]. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2007. p 53)
Response Memos
Memorandum

TO: Paul Leroy, Regional Sales Manager
FROM: Lee Wei, Assistant Sales Manager
SUBJECT: About the Enquiry

Purpose: I have dealt with the enquiry that you passed to me on Friday.

Summary: this enquiry was from MR W LEE Caterers of CeXXXal, who wanted to know whether we could offer him a special wholesale discount on food and wine for his business.

Discussion: I told Mr. LEE that Stop & Shop was a retail, rather than a wholesale supermarket chain. I also told him that we could offer his company the same discount facility offered to all our customers—5% discount on orders over $1,000.

Action: However, I made it clear that payment had to be made no later than 20 days after receipt of invoice, and that payment after that time was subject to interest, and all discounts became void.
(Source: 玛丽 艾伦 古费著 王红 宁久云译. 商务沟通精要 [M]. 北京: 中信出版社, 2004. p 115)

Request Memos
MEMORANDUM

TO:      All directors
FROM:   Lynn Adam, Administrative Secretary
DATE:    May 25, 1999
SUBJECT: Machine Dictation

At the request of some of the division directors, we have made a survey of machine transcripts to see what could be done to improve both the quality of transcripts and the speed with which the work is completed. These are their suggestions:

1. Both dictators and transcribers should be familiar with the dictating and transcribing equipment. A manual is available for every machine; it explains how to use the equipment.

2. It would be helpful if all dictators would:
        Mark the indicator slips with special instruction and correction. Mark the slips, too, to show the length of the letter or memo.
        Spell any proper names as well as technical or unfamiliar words.
        CoXXXol their voice so that the dictation is neither too loud nor too soft. Be sure to enunciate clearly.
        Supply as much information as possible—number of copies, type of message, and identity of dictator. It would also help if salutations and subject lines, when used were dictated.
        Indicate when you would like the dictation complete.

3. Machine transcribers will complete transcription by the day following the receiving of the tape unless the dictation is marked rush—then every will be made to complete the work when it is wanted.

Please let me know if you have further suggestions. I should also like to know if these suggestions result in better transcripts.
(Source: 王元歌. 商务英语信函写作 [M]. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2007. p 54)
Definition of Minutes
Minutes are a brief summary or record of what is said and decided at a meeting, especially of a society or a committee.
2. Classification of Business Minutes
Verbatim Minutes逐字记录型会议记录: In court of hearing of witnesses, every word spoken, everything happened at the meeting is recorded and used.
Minutes of Resolution决议型会议记录: In minutes of resolution, only the result of discussions and the main conclusions are recorded.
Minutes of Narration叙述型会议记录: Minutes of narration refers to concise summary of all the discussions and conclusions made at the meeting.
Minutes of Action行动型会议记录: In such meeting minutes, there should be speeches and discussion given by the attendees as well as the measures and the manager for specific project. That is a combination of narration and resolution minutes.
Task Design:
1. What is the definition of business minutes?
2. How do you differentiate the various business minutes?
3. Genre Features of Business Minutes
Communicative Purposes: 会议记录是记载会议基本情况和内容的会议文书之一,可为日后分析、研究、处理有关问题提供重要依据;可作为书面文件,下达与上报会议精神,以使有关人员了解、贯彻会议有关决议、指示;可作为编写会议纪要(synopsis of minutes)和会议简报的基础及重要的参考资料。
Linguistic Features of Minutes:
        Formality(正式): 与会人员常用口语和非正式的语言进行发言和讨论,而会议   记录,尤其是正式的会议记录,通常使用正式的书面语言进行记录。
        Conciseness and Coherence(简洁一致):会议记录应尽可能简洁明了,只须记录关键和重要信息,利于快捷地编写和整理。此外,不应包括专业术语、俗语、评论、笑话等任何与所讨论的问题无关的内容。
        Preciseness(准确): 记录者应该准确记录讲话内容,并且根据其重要性决定是否需要详细或简单地进行记录。一般来说,应该详细具体地记录重要的意见、建议和解决方案。对于一般性的内容,做简单记录即可。对于会议上做出的任何决定,无论是否重要,都必须正确记录其要点。
        Objectiveness (客观):不论是详细记录,还是纲要记录,必须忠实原义。记录者始终要客观地进行记录,不应当允许自己的意见或偏见影响记录的内容。会议记录中多用第三人称和被动语态或间接引述方式。
Structural Features of Minutes:
        Heading标题: 标题即会议的名称或者会议的类别。一般由公司、机构名称、标识或事由(含届、次)和会议记录组成。
        Basic Situation基本情况: 记录人要写清开会时间(time)、会议地点(venue)、出席人(presense)、缺席人(absence)、列席人(attendee)、主持人(chairperson)和记录人(recorder),必要时应注明其职务。如果会议规模非常小,记录人要把出席者和因故未出席者姓名列出,并标注出主持人和记录员。如果会议规模很大,只需列出出席人数、主持人和记录员姓名即可。
        Body正文:正文部分是会议记录的主要部分,包含主持人发言、主讲人报告、上级指示、会议讨论内容、会议决议等。该部分是记录和撰写的重要部分,是了解会议意图(purpose)的主要依据,是会议结果(resolution)的综合反映,也是日后备查(reference)的可靠依据。在较为正式的会议记录中,该部分常由背景、议题和结论组成。

1. 开场白Opening Statement
开场白也称为会议背景,其作用表明会议召开的目的,或为将要讨论的议题提供背景信息,应简洁易懂。其表述形式有下列三种:
        表明会议讨论的议题;
        对上次的会议记录给予肯定、称赞;
        宣布会议开始。
2. 议题Business Arising
会议过程中讨论和研究的议题,应以段落或要点罗列的形式组织,简要概括各种不同的原因。该部分内容的写作应体现客观、公正的态度,不夹杂个人看法和观点。
3. 结论Conclusion
会议记录的结论应清晰、简洁,如果讨论议题不同,可以分别总结和概括,不应统一做出结论。如果会议的主持人没有作出结论,撰写者有必要进行总结,因为它是个人或部门实施行动的主要依据。因此,应明确、清楚地表达结论的内容和涉及的对象。例如:
•It was resolved that Dr Wang be requested to draft a revised statement on…
•It was resolved that the Vice-Chancellor be invited to discuss the matter at the next meeting of…
        Ending结尾:
会议记录的结尾部分为结尾礼词, 一般要包含以下内容:下次会议日期及主要议程、休会时间、会议记录人签名、附件信息、抄送人信息等。此外,在会议记录的右下方,由会议主持和记录人签名,以明确责任。
Task Design:
1.        How do you understand the requirements of conciseness, in business minutes?
2.        Try to summarize the communicative purposes of business minutes.
4. Techniques for Writing Minutes
        Componets of Formal Minutes(正式性会议记录的要素):
Agenda议事日程:议事日程对会议的整体进程及会议记录的撰写起到统领和导向作用。一般包括:会议召集(convening)、主持人宣布开会(call to order)、与会人员名单(roll call)、会议记录的批准 (approving minutes for meeting)、大会
报告(conference reports)、新议题(business arising)、结束语或休会 (adjournment),概述将要讨论的每一项事宜。
已批准的事宜总结Approval of Previous Minutes
一般情况下,会议召开之前,人们常常会将此前会议中涉及的有关事宜或项目作简要说明和总结。
讨论事宜提出Business Arising
该部分的主要作用在于明确会议召开的目的,即此次会议的议题或中心。内容比较简短,语言概括性强。
讨论、发言的内容Discussion and Report
会议记录应择要而记。就记录一次会议来说,要围绕会议议题、会议主持人和主要发言人的中心思想,与会者的不同意见或有争议的问题、结论性意见、决定或决议等作记录。就记录一个人的发言来说,要记其发言要点、主要论据和结论,论证过程可以不记。就记一句话来说,要记这句话的中心词,修饰语一般可以不记。要注意上下句子的连贯性、可读性和实用性。写作要点为:
以小标题划分层次;
不带岐视性或攻击性言语,态度保持中立;
提及人名和其他任何名称及标题时一般使用全名或全称;
突出强调会议之后需要落实的事项以及规定期限。
决议事项Resolutions
记录会议的结果,如会议的决定、决议或表决等情况。同时,会议记录应该突出的下列重点:
会议中心议题以及围绕中心议题展开的有关活动;
会议讨论、争论的焦点及其各方的主要见解;
权威人士或代表人物的言论;
会议开始时的定调性言论和结束前的总结性言论;
会议已决或议而未决的事项;   
对会议产生较大影响的其他言论或活动。
        Minutes of Narration(叙述型会议记录):叙述型会议记录主要采用陈述语气记录会议的过程和内容,其语言特点主要表现为:多用陈述句式,句子结构简单、清晰,使用常见词语。
        Minutes of Resolution(决议型会议记录):此类会议记录主要针对会议中的各项决议、措施和讨论结果进行记录和撰写。语言多为概括性语句,多用抽象名词。
        Minutes of Action(行动型会议记录):行动型会议记录是叙述型和决议型会议记录的综合。行动型会议记录的内容重点,主要是针对会议上提出的某一项目或方案的实施步骤和过程,进行详细记录。内容包括具体的措施、进展程度和负责人等。
        Informal Minutes(非正式性会议记录):与正式性会议记录相比,非正式性会议记录不必拘泥于形式,结尾处也常常省略签名。主要功能是汇报会议要点,总结会议的收获或结果,多以段落叙述的形式总结会议精神。从某种意义上讲,可视为会议纪要。其特点是:形式简单、篇幅简短、语言客观、概括性强。
        Using Specific Words
Verbs used to counter an idea        complain, contend, refuse to and comment on
Verbs used to iXXXoduce an opinion        claim, declare, disclose, note, hear, explain, mention, point out, report, state say, offer, propose, put forward, suggest, believe, feel
Verbs used to make a decision        agree, resolve and decide
Verbs used to express an agreement        acknowledge, admit, concede and recognize
Verbs used to express rejections        argue against, deny, disregard, refuse and reject
Verbs used to respond to an idea        answer, apologize for, counter and reply
        Passive Voice(被动语态的运用)
Active Voice        Passive Voice
We are still designing the cloth products.        The cloth products were still being designing.
Well, we all agree that the dated of shipment should be changed? Good.        It was agreed that the date of shipment should be changed.
        Past Tense(过去时态的运用)
通常情况,会议记录者使用叙述的方式来记录已经结束的会议过程和内容,所以在撰写会议记录时,经常把现在时态转化成过去时态。例如:
Keith Durkell indicated that players wanted to know the amount of the final installment of the tour payments.
Kathy Ganapathy indicated that she would try to learn the exact amount for the next board meeting.
        Using Indirect Speech(间接引语的运用)
会议记录的撰写者实际上是在转述会议的内容,所以通常多用间接引语来进行叙述。例如:
I will ask the secretary to arrange for their visit and booking room in hotel.
Mr. Wand said that he would ask the secretary to arrange for their visit and booking room in hotel.
        Using Stenography, Abbreviation and Symbols(速记、缩写或特殊符号的运用)
ORIGINATION        ABBREVIATION
Architecture & Civil Engineering        A&CE
As soon as possible        Asap
be equal to        =
because        ∵
before        B4
Biology & Biochemistry        B&B
Chemical Engineering        CHEM ENG
Dean and Head of the School of Management        DEAN MGT
Dean of Engineering and Design        DEAN E&D
Dean of Humanities and Social Sciences        DEAN HSS
Deputy Vice-Chancellor        DEP VC
Director of Estates        D of E
Director of Finance        D of F
Director of Human Resources        D of HR
Director of Lifelong Learning        D of LL
Director of Marketing and Communications        D of M&C
Director of Research and Innovation Services        D of RIS
due to        →
Economics & International Development        EID
Electronic & Electrical Engineering        E&E ENG
European Studies & Modern Languages        ESML
finished        Fin
Heads of Department        HEAD
Mechanical Engineering        MECH ENG
Pharmacy & Pharmacology        P&
please        pls
Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Research)        PVC(R)
rise, increase        ↑
Social & Policy Sciences        SPS
That is        i.e.
the first quarter        Q1
Vice-Chancellor        VC
with reference to        REF
You        U
另外,在会议记录的格式编排上,可以注意以下基本准则:
        基本情况部分的 “Date and Time”, “Venue”, “Present” , “Observers” , “Attendance” 和 “Apologies”可全部大写,也可以只是大写第一个字母。这一组词用作标题时,可用冒号也可不用标点。
        会议记录所有的内容通常左对齐;
        字号、下划线、黑体以及斜体的使用和调整可以让开头部分和重要的信息凸现;
        用数字序号的列举可以使读者更容易浏览信息;
        将记录人或打字员的姓名写在正文结束空两行的地方;
        需要时,将附件字样写在打字员姓名下方两行的位置;
        每项决议或事实除有编号外,都要加上小标题,以总括每项的中心思想;
        凡日期、数字和金额都要列举清楚,特别是金额,除用数字外,最好要加上文字,以确保准确。
        所有会议记录的正本,必须有主席和秘书签字,才称得上完备。而且都要放在会议记录簿中,存放在公司注册的办公地点,以便有关人士查阅。
Task Design:
1. Please distinguish writing approaches in business minutes
2. Could you illustrate informal minutes with examples?
Practical Exercises
A. Supposing you are the assistant to Mrs. Elizabeth Parker, Personnel Director of Shears Electronics Ltd. Mrs. Parker is going to act as the Honorary Secretary at a meeting held by the Company’s Social Committee. Here is a note Mrs. Parker has left in you “in tray” this morning.
I need to arrange a meeting of the Social Committee-the Thursday after next. The conference room should be free by 7 pm…Check, would you? Peter Jones wants to talk about the Trivial Pursuits Quiz recently held – Linda Price wants to discuss a sponsored swim. We’d better also see how the Monthly Musical Evenings are going—I’ll deal with that. Would you prepare the notice and agenda please? Thanks.
Liza
PS Just had a word with the Chairman—he has a report to make this time tool.
I.        Assignments
1. to review the key points of the chapter
2. to complete the exercises of the textbook
VII. Samples of Business Minutes
Heading标题
MINUTES

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING
THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MATERIALS,
METALS & MINERALS SOCIETIES (IOMMMS)
Basic Situation基本情况

American Statistical Association Committee on Minorities In Statistics
2001 Joint Statistical Meetings in Atlanta, GA
Executive Business Meeting Minutes

Time and Date:  8:00 AM – 12 Noon on Monday,
August 6, 2001  
Venue:  Downtown Atlanta Georgia Marriott Marquis Rio Grande Conference Room  
Attendees:  
Gladys Reynolds (Chair), Christopher Standard, Robert Bell, Deborah Swayne, Javier Rojo, Donald Martin,
Jackie Hughes-Oliver, Shelton Jones, and Ramon Leon (guest invited to speak now joining the committee)
Ending结尾
Adjournment
The meeting was adjourned at 10:40 a.m. The next regular meeting is scheduled for 8:30 a.m. on June 20.
Respectfully submitted,

Terry King, Secretary
Enc: Appendix A: Hardware and Software Allocations
C: Department Heads
Director of Purchasing
Corporate Executive Council

Agenda议事日程
Tarleton Corinthians Football Club
Annual General Meeting
12th January 2005, 9:00 am at Tarleton Bowling Club
Agenda
1.        Call to order
2.        Roll call
3.        Minutes of the AGM for the season 2003---2004
4.        Business arising
5.        Report by the Chair
6.        Treasurer’s report
7.        Social committee’s report
8.        Amendments to the constitution(any proposed amendments to the secretary by December31, 2004)
9.        Election of Chair for season 2005-2006
10.        Election of Treasurer for season 2005-2006
11.        Nominations for managers’ position
12.        Any other business
13.        Adjournment
Next meeting:
10:00 am January 19th , 2006
Auditorium, Tarleton Bowling Club
(Source: 徐仁凤 吴冰. 实用商务英语写作教程 [M]. 南京: 东南大学出版社, 2006. p 26)
Minutes of Narration叙述型会议记录

BENNET ENTERPRISES SAFETY COMMITTEE
                  MINUTES

Date: 6 December, 2005
Venue: Room 15-12 of Ocean Building
Present: R. Gould, M. Bygate, P. Johnson, A. Fung, M. Wang
Apologies: S. Brand, A. Duggan

The Previous Meeting Minutes
Minutes of the previous meeting were accepted.
Moved D. Thomas, seconded P. Johnson
The motion relating to item 3, R.C.D. installation had been omitted---this will be corrected in the official record.

Business Arising
a) R.C.D. installation
M. Wand will contact the suppliers and arrange for a compliance certificate to be issued by 15 December.
b) Emergency procedures-dispatch store
D. Thomas will draft a new set of procedures and circulate them to committee members for comment by 8 December.
P. Johnson reported that it has been completed, inspected and approved; however, a certificate of compliance still needs to be issued. The legal implications of not having certificate were addressed. It was agreed this was a matter of high priority.

Emergency CoXXXol Team
It was agreed that a formal allocation of funds for emergency-coXXXol team training will be made in the 2006 budget.
Moved D. Adams, seconded M. Wang
D. Adams will present a detailed training plan and recommend budget allocation to the next meeting.
The committee noted the report on training for emergency-coXXXol team members. It was agreed that a budget allocation would be made for this activity in the 2006 budget.

Next Meeting
The next meeting will be held on Wednesday, 18 January 2006 in the conference room on the third floor.
(Source: 管春林. 国际商务英语写作 [M]. 杭州: 浙江大学出版社, 2006. p249)
Minutes of Resolution决议型会议记录

Resolution Minutes of Meeting

Date: 27 April, 2005
Venue: East-Saxon Savings Bank
Participants: All the middle-level managers

The following resolutions were taken in the subsequent discussion:
1. Setup of a Discussion Group “Developers of Economy”
The establishment of a regular Discussion Group that will take place, following a rotation principle, at least twice a year has been agreed upon as a suitable instrument for the exchange of information and for coordination. The Breslau Region has offered an invitation for the next meeting. Visiting interesting projects in the area has been adopted as an idea of inspiration.
2. Presentation of the Economic Region
There has been agreement that the attractiveness and the profile of the region need to be made visible. Main focus for this purpose should be formed by the economy with conceXXXation on certain branches.
3. Additional Participants
Mr. Loetzsch’s request for everybody to coXXXibute to suggest further participants was readily welcomed by all participants.
4. Language of Communication in the Discussion Group
For the time being, German shall be maintained as the joint language in the Discussion Group, whereas English may be resorted to at any time, also within a discussion team.
5. Profile Sheet and Contact Partners
Filling in a profile sheet for participating partners is regarded as helpful for the provision of basic information, contact partners and, probably, core competence.
All partners are requested to return this profile sheet to Saxony Economic Development Corporation by 13 June 2005. They will subsequently be made accessible to all partners.
(Source: www.3-cip.com/set/704/Protokoll_Workshop_2005_04_27_E.pdf)
Minutes of Action行动型会议记录
Action Minutes
GENERAL PLAN UPDATE – REFINEMENT GROUP
Thursday, July 6, 2006, 12:00 to 4:00 p.m.
at Carpenters’ Local 605
751 Neeson Road, Marina

Those present: Dennis Beougher, Brian Finegan, Tom Carvey, Tom Rowley, Mike Caplin, Christopher Bunn Jr., Tina Trujillo, Ron Chesshire, Roger Moitoso,

I. Public comment period (for items not on the agenda)
Public comment: none
II. Approval of agenda for July 6, 2006
Public comment: none
Tabled for lack of quorum
III. Approval of minutes of May 4, June 22 and June 29, 2006
Tabled for lack of quorum
IV. Review of completed GPU4 matrices
Public comment: none
V. GPU4 issues from constituent groups
Determine top ten issues
There was discussion of what method to use to determine the top issues. Discussion of majority voting, or weighted voting.
T. Rowley suggested including not only the top ten issues of concern, but also significant issues that are important to individual organizations.
Chair Finegan conducted a discussion of the issues of concern and listed them on chart paper. Consideration was given to those issues that would have the most practical effect over the next years if included in GPU4. This list appears below.
1. Goal OS-5 and policies
2. LU-2.17b
3. Goal LU-9 and policies (plan-wide)
4. IXXXo 1.5(a) and (d)
5. S-6.1
6. S-5.11
7. OS-3.6
8. PS-3.2
9. Definitions
10. LU-8.6 (Open space used as buffer, or separation)
VI. Review Process for GPU4 July 19 is the first Planning Commission workshop
VII. Community General Plan Initiative
There was no report
VIII. Area plan consistency
Brief discussion of whether the RG should look seriously at the area plans at this point.
IX. Promotion of RG work
X. Other business
At next week’s meeting, there should be discussion about concerns about definitions and the top ten issues of concern should be prioritized.
XI. Adjournment to Thursday, July 13, 2006, location TBA
(Source: www.refinegpu.org/Action%20minutes%2007-06-06%20Final.pdf)
Informal Minutes非正式性会议记录

Osman Industries
Minutes of a Meeting of the Representatives of Osman

Venue: Room 25, Head Office
Time: 2:00pm – 3:30 pm
Present: Alice Brown, James Clark, Harry Fung, Peter Koo

James Clark, in the chair opened the meeting at 2:00 pm.
Discussion centered on looking into the recent fire involving cooling tower 24 on the roof of the Shaftesbury Building in the city.

Mr. Fung described the background to the incident, and produced photographs to show the scene of the incident at the Shaftesbury Building.

Discussion took place about possible causes of the incident, and it was generally agreed that the most probable cause was vandalism. Mr. Clark suggested that tougher security measures should be iXXXoduced to combat it, and recommended that closed circuit television might help.

Discussion turned to the remedial work. Mr. Koo agreed to carry out this work the following Friday. He also suggested that flame retardant paint should be applied to reduce the risk of another such incident, and offered to undertake this work if required.

Mr. Clark concluded the meeting with a summary of the decisions reached at 3:30 pm.
Structural Features of Business CoXXXacts
Generally, the standard terms of a business coXXXact, often referred to as boilerplate terms, should contain the following information:

3.3.1 Description of Parties
The parties to the coXXXact should be specifically identified at the beginning of the coXXXact and defined in such a way to make clear the identity of the parties and defined abbreviations for use throughout the coXXXact when referencing the parties.
3.3.2 Statement of Consideration
Every coXXXact should include at least some description of the consideration on which the coXXXact is based. Consideration may consist either in a detriment to the promisor or a benefit to the promisee. The mutual obligations of the parties to a coXXXact constitute sufficient consideration to make the coXXXact binding.
3.3.3 Places of Performance
As a general rule, the parties to a coXXXact governed by laws of specific jurisdiction should fix place of performance in accordance with the applicable law, and any private coXXXact is void if it is against public policy.  
3.3.4 Time of Performance
When no time of performance is specified in the coXXXact, the court will presume that the parties intended a reasonable time for performance. However, failing to specify a time or date for performance leaves uncertainty that exposes both parties to misunderstanding.
3.3.5 Choice of Law
In the absence of a choice of law provision, the law of the couXXXy with the most significant relationship to the substance of the coXXXact will govern the enforcement of the coXXXact. Accordingly, the parties should carefully provide a choice of law provision based upon their knowledge of the law chosen, such as:“This Agreement is made and entered into in the state of New Jersey and shall in all respects be interpreted, enforced and governed under the laws of the state of New Jersey.”
3.3.6 Disclaimer of Warranties, Exculpatory Clauses, and Limitation of Liability Clauses
Exculpatory clauses and limitation of liability clauses are not favored and are therefore strictly construed against the party seeking the benefit of the clause. Accordingly, any waiver of warranties, limitation of remedies, or limitation of liability should be stated in the coXXXact in conspicuous language such as ALLCAPS and/or BOLD lettering.  
3.3.7 Merger and Integration Clause
The merger and integration clause is another provision that should be included in every coXXXact. A common merger clause reads as follows:
“This Agreement modifies and supersedes all other preceding agreements, oral or written, between the parties and constitutes the entire agreement of the parties regarding the subject matter of coXXXact.”
3.3.8 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
Where the parties seek to avoid the uncertainty and expense of litigation and possibly diminish their exposure to punitive damages, they should consider agreeing to submit all disputes arising under the coXXXact to binding arbitration. The arbitration clause should be specific as to the scope of the arbitration and should also specify and/or adopt the rules of the chosen arbitration forum.
Task design:
Get familiar with the following terms of coXXXacts:
(1) 定义(Definition)条款
该条款是对合同中的某些词语的进行定义,确保各词语在合同中的含义统一,以免发生歧义。这些词语可分成两大类。第一类是英文合同中的常用词语,如附属机构(Affiliate)、财务报表(Financial Statements)等;第二类是本合同中使用的具有特定含义的词语。
(2) 陈述与保证(Representations and Warranties)条款
该条款是合同双(各)方对某些基本事实的陈述并保证其陈述的真实性,其构成合同签订与生效的前提。主要内容有:
a) 合法注册、经营状况现状、相关资质(Organization, Standing and Qualification)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其注册地、注册所依据的法律,声明合法拥有其财产、经营状况良好、有权签订并履行本合同。
b) 注册资本(Capitalization)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其各自的注册资本金额、股权数量等情况。
c) 适当授权(Due Authorization)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其有权签订并履行本合同,本合同的签订对其具有约束力。
d) 重大债务(Liabilities)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明除了其已经披露的之外,没有其他重大债务。
e) 财产状况(Status of Proprietary Assets)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其在本合同签订时的主要财产状况。
f) 财产权属状况(Title to Properties and Assets)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其财产所有权是完整的无瑕疵的。
g) 重大合同及其义务(Material CoXXXacts and Obligations)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明,在本合同签订时其尚未完全履行的重大合同及其项下的义务。
h) 诉讼与仲裁(Litigation and Arbitration)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明在本合同签订时尚未审结的诉讼与仲裁案件。
i) 遵守法律与政府审批(Compliance with Laws; Governmental Consents)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其完全遵守各项适用法律并已得到政府的有关审批。
j) 履行其他约定义务(Compliance with Other Instruments and Agreements)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其完全履行其他各项约定义务。
k) 披露义务(Disclosure)
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其已披露了所有与本合同相关或本合同要求披露的信息。
(3) 先决条件(Conditions precedent)条款
该条款是有关合同双(各)方履行各自义务的前提条件的约定。
(4) 责任限制(Limited Liability or Limitation of Liability)条款
该条款是合同双(各)方对其在本合同项下的责任上限进行的约定。
(5) 保密(Non-disclosure or No Publicity)条款
根据该条款,合同双(各)方对本合同内容以及在本合同协商、签订、履行过程中所得知的其他各方的信息要承担保密义务。
(6) 合同终止(Termination)条款
该条款是合同双(各)方对本合同在何种情况下可以提前终止进行约定。
(7) 标题(headings)条款
在该条款中,合同双(各)方约定合同中的各个小标题(一般以黑体字显示)是为了在合同中提及的方便,不构成对合同内容的解释、修改、补充。
(8) 合同有效期(Term)条款:该条款是有关合同生效日期、方式以及有效期的条款。
(9) 权利放弃(Waiver)条款
在该条款中,合同双(各)方声明任何一方如果没有行使其权利,并不意味着其放弃该权利。
(10) 合同变更(Amendment or Modification)条款
在该条款中,合同双(各)方可以约定合同不得修改或者合同修改的方式。
(11) 转让(Assignment or Successors and Assignment)条款
在该条款中,合同双(各)方可约定合同不可转让或者合同转让的程序,同时,还可以约定,如果合同转让,则合同对受让方有完全约束力。
(12) 通知(Notice)条款
该条款是对合同双(各)方在履行合同过程中相互送达信息的方式以及视为送达的条件进行约定。一般来讲,要写明合同双(双)方的通信地址、传真号、联系电话、联络人以及送达成功的具体条件。
(13) 适用法律(Governing Law or Applicable Law)条款Submission to Jurisdiction
该条款是有关合同解释、争议解决所适用法律的约定。
(14) 争议解决(Dispute Resolution)条款
该条款是有关合同相关或与合同有关的争议解决方式的约定,可以选择诉讼,也可以选择仲裁。
(15) 条款效力独立(Severability or Survival of terms)条款
根据该条款的约定,合同的任一条款如果无效,也不影响其他任何条款的效力。
(16) 不可抗力(Force Majeure)条款
该条款是有关不可抗力构成要件及其具体情形,以及在发生不可抗力事件的情况下如果处理的约定。
(17) 所有协议(Entire Agreement)条款Integration
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明本合同构成双(各)方就合同主题事宜达成的最终的、唯一的协议,除非明确指明,在此之前的所有约定,无论是口头的,还是书面的,均无效力。
(18) 传真签订生效(Execution by Fax)条款
合同双(各)方可以在该条款中约定,双(各)方可通过传真方式签订合同并使其生效。
(19) 语言(Language)条款:该条款是有关合同适用语言的约定。
(20) 合同文本(Counterparts)条款
该条款是对合同的份数以及各份合同的效力进行约定。
(21) 歧义(Ambiguities)条款
在该条款中,合同双(各)方要约定主合同与其附件之间、主合同与其补充协议之间、主合同各语言文本之间如果发生意思歧义如何处理。
(22) 币种(Currency)条款:该条款是对合同项下的货币种类进行约定
4. Drafting Techniques of Business CoXXXacts
4.1 Drafting Style of Business CoXXXacts


4.2 Drafting Process of Business CoXXXacts

4.2.1 Preparation —Before Drafting
a. 拟订合同提纲,敲定合同审核要点
列出合同交易的要点,即合同的清单、目录或概述,弄清合同有哪些重点、难点。要尽可能预见到许多可能发生的各种情况,要能清楚地描述发生这些情况的应对解决办法,要专门查询了解专业情况,必要的情况向有关专业人士或部门咨询。
b. 搜集辅助文本和资料,使用典型合同范本
  包括查找类似的合同和示范文本。找到此前保留的过去的交易记录或者是类似合同或类似的典型合同范本。起草合同时,可以把这些范本或者通过合同生成软件初步生成的文本当作原始资料或框架,利用其中某些典型的条款和措词。
c. 查找相关法律规定,类似案例、论文等资料
应根据法律规定乃至学术研究、案例研究梳理各方权利义务等相关法律问题。尤其是案例,可从中发现纠纷的类型和隐患。
4.2.2 Drafting Guidelines

4.2.3 Document Review and Revision
        Look through the subject qualification;
        Clarify the subject matter of the coXXXact;
        Insure the reasonableness of shared responsibilities;
        Guarantee the security of transactions;
        Ensure the accuracy of coXXXact terms.
Techniques for Writing Resumes
Techniques for Designing Resumes简历构思的策略技巧
写作过程中应该重点解决好两个方面:经历和预期印象:
        Experiences经历: 如果工作经历丰富,在不同地区、不同行业做过多种不同的工作,应当选择与目前申请的工作相关的经历加以陈述。对于刚毕业的学生而言,及时是暑假一两个星期的实习或义务劳动也可以。当然,也有的招聘单位对工作经验没有要求,目的可以更好地培养忠于自己的人员,对此,应聘者应当有一定的分辨能力。
        Expectant Impression预期印象: 应当关注自己的简历会给潜在的老板留下什么样的印象,用事实说话最为有效。比如,在过去的工作中遇到过什么问题,是如何解决的,取得了什么结果等。重点突出团队精神、承受压力的能力、应变能力、承担风险和责任的能力、沟通能力、外语以及跨文化交际能力、明白业务目标的能力、分享信息能力和继续学习能力等。
Techniques for Writing Resumes简历写作的技巧
        High-lighted Title主题突出: 简历中的各部分内容必须围绕申请的工作目标,形成一个完整的统一体。每部分内容有其独立的小标题,即清晰、有效地表达一个单一的中心思想。在简历中,可尽量提供能体现自己亮点的信息,简历中的各部分应具有连贯性和连续性,从而使整份简历具有统一性。
特定的岗位具有特定的要求,因此,没有必要将做过的所有事情都一一在简历上写清楚,只要记住突出重点的原则,认准一个岗位后,根据这个岗位具体的素质和能力要求,重点将自己相关的信息写到简历上就可以。
        Truth-reflective Content内容真实: 真实性是制作简历时必须坚持的一条基本原则。所谓真实,就是要把应聘者的基本信息和实际情况照实告诉用人单位,而不要为了迎合用人单位的需求而虚构自己的经历和才华,因为只有诚实的人才可能最终获得职场的认可。
Techniques for Writing Application letters
        Writing Steps for Application Letters(求职信的写作步骤) :1.提出或陈述候选身份(iXXXoducing candidature);2.确定任职凭证(establishing credential);3.提出足以激励对方接受申请的凭证(offering incentives);4.附寄有关文件(enclosing documents);5.采用施压策略(using pressure tactics);6.索求回音(soliciting response);7.礼貌收尾(ending politely)。
        Writing Skills for Application Letters(求职信的写作技巧):
1. Specific Subject(主题明确):求职者向招聘者申请工作机会,主要谈论的是工作岗位的要求和求职者的相应任职资格、工作经验和技能技巧,表达求职人的任职决心和信心。因此,与主题不相关的信息无须赘述。2. Direct Content (内容有针对性):写求职信时,要研究用人单位的工作性质和文化背景,从而决定内容的取舍,因为可能有的老板看重文采,有的老板注重员工的道德修养;有的老板希望找一个听话的员工,有的老板则需要一个能独当一面的帮手,在写作时都要根据具体写作前提来确定内容。3. Proper Language(语言恰当):求职信的语言要有针对性,注意区分专业与非专业语言的使用。如果一位工程师要给人力资源部经理写信,读者可能读不懂专业工程术语,这时就要用日常用语解释所有的专业术语。如果知道读者是本专业的招聘经理,就可以使用专业术语。4. Formal Style(语体正式):求职信要求作者使用比较严谨的语言,讲究词语选用、句式变化和组段谋篇。一篇措辞得当、重点突出、布局合理的求职信也是求职者写作能力和英文水平的体现,这对用人单位来讲也是考察潜在雇员的第一步。
Task Design:
Fill in the blanks to make a complete application letter according to the following job advertisement .
OFFICE MANAGER
A large company seeks a college trained person to manage office of five. Must know office administration. Be able to handle correspondence. Have people skills and management ability. Some experience preferred. Send application material to personnel office, P.O. Box 129…

Dear Sir,
The office manager position listed in your ___1___ in Monday’s State News interests me. I ___2___ my experience, education and personal qualities ____3___ me well for this position.
My five years of work experience (see __4____ resumé) have taught me to do all phases of office work. For the past two years I have been in ___5___ of payrolls at Gynes Manufacturing Company. As the administrator of payrolls, I have had to ____6___ all types of office operations, including records managemet and general correspondence. Althought I am happy on this job, it does not offer the career ___7___ I seek with a large company as yours.
Complementing my work experience are my studies at Metropolitan Community College. In ___8____ to studying the prescribed courses in my major field of business administration, I selected electives to help me in my ____9____ objective. And I believe I have succeeded. In ___10___ of full time employment through most of my time in college, I was ___11___ the Associate of Arts degree last May. But most important of all, I learned from my studies how office work should be done.
Furthermore, I have the personal qualities that would ___12___ me harmoniously into your organization. I like people, and through experience I have learned how to work with them.
In summary, my studies and experience have ___13___ me for the work as an office manager. May I meet with you to discuss the matter further? Please call me at 0451-87654321 to ___14___ an interview.

Sincerely,
Task Answers:
1. advertisement       2. believe    3. qualify       4.  enclosed
5. charge             6. manage    7. which       8. addition
9. career             10. spite      11. conferred   12. fit
13. fitted/qualified     14. have/arrange
Practical Exercises
1. Lucky Company which specializes in foreign trade is seeking a manager of Accounting Department. The Candidate must be skillful in computer, fluent in English writing and speaking. Write a an application letter.
2. According to the scrambled information below, please write an application letter.
I'm writing to let you know about my availability for the brand man¬ager job you advertised. As you can see from my enclosed resume, my background is perfect for the position. Even though I don't have any real job experience, my grades have been outstanding consider¬ing that I went to a top-ranked business school.

I did many things during my undergraduate years to prepare me for this job:
Earned a 3.4 out of a 4.0 with a 3.8 in my business courses
Elected representative to the student governing association
Selected to receive the Lamar Franklin Award
Worked to earn a portion of my tuition

I am sending my resume to all the top firms, but I like yours better than any of the rest. Your reputation is tops in the industry, and I want to be associated with a business that can prideful say it's the best.

If you wish for me to come in for an interview, I can come on a Friday afternoon or anytime on weekends when I don't have classes. Again, thanks for considering me for your brand manager position.



专业英语-ESEC


英语写作
This course covers essay writing skills, involving words, sentences, paragraphs, articles and many other aspects, from easy to difficult, step by step, theory and practice, aimed at increasing the students writing skills.

写作技巧之遣词(连接词), 造句(基本句型,组段(段落结构,展开段落的方法,如何写好段),文体类别。
实战练习:文化教育、工作家庭、兴趣爱好、科学技术的议论文,以及图表分析的写作。

The words and writing skills (conjunction), sentences (basic sentence, group paragraph (paragraph structure, expand the paragraph method, how to write), the category.

Actual practice: education, work and family, hobbies, science and technology, argumentative essay, paper, report, book review, and graphs writing skills.

主题句Topic sentence, 段落的统一性unity, 段落的连贯性coherence, 过渡语transition.

Informative Summary信息型概要 Evaluative Summary评价型概要

Definition of Graphs
Graphs are diagrams that present numerical data in visual form in order to show trends, movements, distributions, and cycles.
图表是一种传递和表达信息的工具,其主要目的是传递数字和图形符号信息,基本要求是简单、直接、清晰和明了。
Classification of Graphs
Types of Graphs
Line graphs (折线图) are used to track changes over short and long periods of time. Line graphs can also be used to compare changes over the same period of time for more than one group
Pie charts (饼状图) can be used to compare parts of a whole. They do not show changes over time. In pie charts, the percentages of a whole can be shown and represented at a set point in time. Unlike bar graphs and line graphs, pie charts do not show changes over time.
Bar graphs(柱状图) are used to compare things between different groups or to track changes over time. However, when trying to measure change over time, bar graphs are best when the changes are bigger.
Area graphs(面积曲线图) are very similar to line graphs. They can be used to track changes over time for one or more groups.

Get the Main Idea
准确完整地表述图表中的信息是描述图表的关键。第一,描述图表本身,但不必面面俱到,一定突出要点;第二,分析图表代表的现象以及产生这种(这些)现象的原因;第三,联系实际,展望未来。描述图表时,应注意以下几点:
●        避免流水账式的描述图表,应抓取重点信息;
●        描述图表要有层次,应有主次之分,先说最重要的,其他依次说明;
●        图表描述中所提及的主要信息,在图表中必须要找到相应的数据支持。
You should find: What is happening? What are the biggest numbers? If it is a time graph, what are the biggest changes? What are the trends? (Trends mean the main changes or differences over time.)


高级英语
This course is designed to further enhance students' overall English proficiency, so that students achieve a basic level of English, "College English Curriculum Requirements (2007)" in the "high demand" for by CET (CET6) and PubMed for ready. "High demand" as follows:
1. Listening comprehension: can understand basic English conversation and talks can basically understand familiar topics longer English radio or TV programs, speed is 150 --- 180 words per minute, can grasp its main ideas, seize the main points and relevant details. I can understand basic professional courses taught in English.
2. Oral skills: the ability to use English on a general topic of conversation relatively fluent, can basically express personal opinions, feelings, ideas, etc., can basically state facts, events, and other reasons, articulate, voice, intonation basically correct.
3. Reading: Students can basically read English national newspapers and magazines and popular general topics of the article, reading speed of 70 --- 90 words per minute. In the fast reading lengthy material, the reading speed of 120 words per minute. Skimming can be read on the reading material or hunt. The profession can read a review of the literature, and a proper understanding of the main ideas, the main facts and relevant details.
4. Writing: Can on general themes basic expression of personal opinions, learn to write professional papers of English abstract, can learn to write professional English essay. Be able to describe a variety of charts, to write at least 160 words essay in half an hour, content integrity, view clear, well-organized, fluent.
5. translation capability: With the dictionary can translate the English-speaking couXXXies generally popular press articles on familiar topics, can Excerpt English literature of the profession. English Translation per hour speed of 350 English words, Chinese-English translation speed of 300 characters per hour. Tech fluent translation, language comprehension and expression with fewer errors. Be able to use appropriate translation skills in the translation.
6. Recommended Vocabulary: Students should acquire reach 6395 words and 1200 phrases (including secondary and general requirements to be acquired vocabulary), of which 2200 words (including general requirements should grasp the positive words) of positive words (see "College English Curriculum Requirements (2007)," Annex 3: Reference Glossary).

综合英语大二下学期 Integrated Skills of English
1. Improving Reading Skills
2. Enriching Vocabulary
3. Improving Writing skills
4. IXXXoduction to Grammar

Teaching Activities        Listening and Speaking
        Reading Comprehension and Language
        Extended Activities
        Discussion
        Practice
Teaching Process        I .Warming up
II.IXXXoduction to Background Knowledge
III. Text Analysis       
IV. Questions
Assignment        Write an article of 300 words about the couXXXyside you are most familiar with.



        教学目标
       
核心知识       
核心能力       
核心素质
Book One  
Unit One Going to College        Key words and
expressions based on the
context of “going to
college”; Fill in an
application form for a
library card
        listening,speaking, reading, writing and
translating five basic
skills, the practical
ability to us good
English        Good language quality, a strong cross-cultural
communication quality, a
Good mental and
physical qualities
Unit Two Music        key words and expressions based on the context of “music”, know how to address an envelope        培养听、说、读、写、译五项基本技能,具备较好的英语实际运用能力        具备良好的语言素质、较强的跨文化交际素质、良好的人文素质
Unit Three Developi
ng a
Positive Attitude
        key words and expressions based on the context of “develop a positive attitude”, know how to write an name cards        培养听、说、读、写、译五项基本技能,具备较好的英语实际运用能力        具备良好的语言素质、良好的身心素质和团结协作精神

基础英语-大二上学期

Students will be able to:
1)        grasp the main idea and structure of the text (narration in chronological sequence);
2)        appreciate the narrative skills demonstrated in the text (selection of details, repetition and the use of synonyms.)
3)        master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4)  conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related
to the theme of the unit.

一、Master the new words and expressions encountered in the unit
二、Able to understand, analyse and illustrate the passages
1、Ask students to use what they have learnt and express themselves freely
2、I think it's difficult for the students to express themselves using the newly learnt language materials.
3、the solution: Let students speak freely, even if they make some mistakes. Sometimes you can correct their mistakes, depending on the seriousness of their mistakes and their levels of learning. In addition, the teacher will prepare a few questions in advance, and occasionally, iXXXoduce the prepared conversation topics that lead to lively conversations.

英语视听说 大三第一学期

运用教学方法、手段                Provide some leading questions related with the topic so that the students can speak out about it.
        Do listening practice more than once until the students can grasp the key information.
        Explain some new words, expressions and sentence structures.
        Randomly check the students of their mastery of the listening skills
   Use multimedia tools to arouse the student interest and make them active in participating in speaking out activities.

授课章(节)        Unit 1 Roll over,  Beethoven        授课次数        第 1 次
授课方式        课堂讲授(√) 实践课()上机课()        教学时数            2学时
教 学
目 的、
要 求        Aim:
IXXXoduce the leading topic
Make students practice the listening skills
Requirements:
Students can listen and understand the key information of the listening practice.
Students can speak out after the model conversations and retell the given passage.
授 课
重 点、
难 点        Key Points:
Useful expressions
Making inferences
Difficult Points:
Making comments
Speaking out
教学内容及时间分配


        I.        Lead-in:
1.        What kind of music do most people prefer, slow or fast music?
2.        What kind of music do you prefer, classical music or pop music?
3.        Do you think music can affect people’s lives, for example, to calm people, to cheer them up, or to increase efficiency?
4.        Do you like singing karaoke? Why?
II.        Listening skills: Making inferences
III.        Listening in:      Task 1. Encore
Task 2.The carpenters
Task 3. Mozart
IV.        Speaking out: Expressing likes and dislikes; Making suggestions
Model 1: Do you like jazz?.
Model 2: Do you like punk rock?
Model 3: It just sounds like noise to me
1. 10 min. for Lead-in.
2. 20 min. for Listening skills
3. 30 min. for Listening in
4. 20 min. for Speaking out.
课堂讨论
与练习        1.        What kind of music do most people prefer, slow or fast music?
2.        What kind of music do you prefer, classical music or pop music?
3.        Do you think music can affect people’s lives, for example, to calm people, to cheer them up, or to increase efficiency?
4. Do you like singing karaoke? Why?
5. Making inferences

作业
思考题        How to make inferences, or express likes and dislike


授课章(节)        Unit 2 What’s on at the theater?         授课次数        第 3 次
授课方式        课堂讲授(√) 实践课()上机课()        教学时数            2学时
教 学
目 的、
要 求        Aim:
IXXXoduce the leading topic
Make students practice the listening skills
Requirements:
Students can listen and understand the key information of the listening practice.
Students can speak out after the model conversations and retell the given passage.
授 课
重 点、
难 点        Key Points:
Making inferences
Giving and accepting invitations
Difficult Points:
Useful expressions
Further Listening and Speaking
教学内容及时间分配


        III.        Listening in
Task 1:Waiting for the new Harry Potter movie
Task 2: A great actor
Task 3:Movie reviews
IV.        Speaking out:Making inferences; Giving and accepting invitations
Model 1: Will you come with me?
Model 2: What did you think about the movie?
Model 3: The plot is first-class
V.        Let’s talk
VI.        Further listening and speaking
Task 1:Only one line.
Task 2:An interview with J.K. Rowlling
Task 3:The secret of the next Harry Potter book
1. 20 min. for  Listening In.
2. 20 min. for Speaking Out
3. 20 min. for Let’s Talk
4. 20 min. for Further Listening and Speaking.

课堂讨论
与练习        1.Waiting for the new Harry Potter movie
2. A great actor
3.Movie reviews
4.Will you come with me?
5.What did you think about the movie?
6.The plot is first-class

作业
思考题        How to make inferences,and give and accept invitations






授课章(节)        Unit 4 Beware of ads         授课次数        第 6 次
授课方式        课堂讲授(√) 实践课()上机课()        教学时数            2学时
教 学
目 的、
要 求        Aim:
IXXXoduce the leading topic
Make students practice the listening skills
Requirements:
Students can listen and understand the key information of the listening practice.
Students can speak out after the model conversations and retell the given passage.
授 课
重 点、
难 点        Key Points:
Identifying the associative meaning of ads
Asking for clarification and clarifying
Difficult Points:
Useful expressions
Further Listening and Speaking
教学内容及时间分配


        III    Listening in
Task 1:The influence of advertising
Task 2: I’ll get a camera
Task 3on’t even think about it
VI   Speaking out:Making inferences; Asking for clarification and clarifying
Model 1: Who pays?
Model 2:Beware of ads
Model 3: Are the free magazines free?
V    Let’s talk
VI    Further listening and speaking
Task 1:Banning cigarette ads.
Task 2:A radio commercial
Task 3:An iXXXoduction to advertising
1. 20 min. for  Listening In.
2. 20 min. for Speaking Out
3. 20 min. for Let’s Talk
4. 20 min. for Further Listening and Speaking.


英语听力

本课程是学前英语教育专业必修课,是专业基础课.课程的目的在于培养学生听懂基本基本单位(如语音、字母、数字、单词、句型等)的基础上,逐步培养增强学生在语篇水平上的理解能力和熟练程度,提高学生对所听内容的分析、归纳、综合和推断能力。  
This course is a pre-school English education professional courses, aim to train students to understand the basic fundamental units (such as Phonetics, letters, numbers, words, sentences, etc.) based on the gradual cultivation and enhancement of understanding and proficiency level, and improve the analyzing, summarizing, synthesizing and inference capabilities.

Lesson 1     Greetings and IXXXoductions
(Ⅰ)  PART  A  Micro-Listening   Phonetics  Sound Recognition
   PART B Micro-Listening     Dialogue 1   Hello   
                            Dialogue 2   Mr Li Meets a Student
PART  C  Oral Practice


英语口语

《大学英语口语教程(上)》是根据《大学英语教学课程要求》的精神为大学非英语专业学生量身定做的。《教程》的主要目标是培养学生的英语听说能力,尤其是口语表达能力,使他们在今后的工作中能用英语顺利地进行口头交际。同时也注意到增强学生的自主学习能力,开阔视野、改善思维,全面提高其综合文化素质和跨文化交际意识。
本“教程”以建构主义理论为指导,基于“任务型教学”理论,即语言教学的过程应该是一个为完成交流任务的过程,课堂上的语言活动应该以具体的“任务”形式组织起来,它以社会生活中的实际交流意义为中心,并尽可能地使这些课堂的语言教学活动真实化和社会化。

"College Spoken English Course (on)" is based on "College English Curriculum Requirements" the spirit English majors tailored. The main goal is to develop students' English listening and speaking ability, especially oral communication skills, so that they can successfully carry out oral communication in English in future work. Noting also enhance students' self-learning ability, broaden their horizons, improve thinking, comprehensively improve their overall cultural quality and awareness of intercultural communication.

Unit 1 Getting to Know Each Other
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 2 Campus Life
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 3 Food
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 4 Sports
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 5 Shopping
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 6 Computer and Internet
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 7 Recreation and Entertainment
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Pan Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 8 Festivals
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Upt0 You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 9 Family
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 10 Love and Marriage
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 11 Housing。
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further Reference

Unit 12 Business and International Trade
Part Ⅰ Starting out
Part Ⅱ Model Speaking
Part Ⅲ Creative Speaking
Part Ⅳ It's Up to You
Part Ⅴ Further R

英语国家概况
Major English-Speaking CouXXXies – Final Exam Study Guide

Important
•        This is not a substitute for a semester of participation and proper study habits. This is merely a means of self-evaluation, a way to determine which topics you need to review before the final exam.
•        There may be questions on the test that ask about information that isn’t in this study guide. It is your responsibility to look over your notes and the information in the textbook.
•        Don’t focus on specific numbers. For example, years are not important, but you should know that the Revolutionary War happened before the American Civil War.
•        Don’t study the night before the test. You will “burn out.” Let your brain rest before the exam.
•        Good luck!

Exam Overview
True or False: 25 questions, 25%
Matching: 50 questions, 25%
Multiple Choice: 25 questions, 25%
Short Answer: 5 question, 25%


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Symbols
Flag
•        Also known as the Union Jack
•        A combination of three flags
o        England’s flag, Scotland’s flag, Ireland’s flag
National Anthem
•        “God Save the Queen”

CouXXXy and People
The United Kingdom
•        The U.K.’s full title: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
•        The current Prime Minister is David Cameron
•        Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, and Wales
•        Capital City of the U.K.: London
•        Population: 59.6 million people
o        90% live in urban areas, 10% live in rural areas
o        Demographics:
        94% white
        1.5% Indian
        0.3% Chinese
        0.03% African
        1.5 million Muslims
        Second largest Jewish population
•        Official language is English
•        Religion
o        8.4 million church goers (44.3% of the population)
o        20.9% are Anglican (Church of England)
o        9% are Roman Catholic
o        2.8% are Presbyterian (Church of Scotland)
The U.K. consists of four couXXXies
•        England
o        Capital: London
o        Landmass: 53.7% of the United Kingdom
o        Population: 50 million
o        The “backbone” of England: The Pennines Mountains
o        Second longest river: Thames
o        Origin of the English language
        Language derived from the Normans and Anglo-Saxons
•        Scotland
o        Capital: Edinburgh
o        Landmass: 32.1% of the United Kingdom
o        Population: 5 million
o        Highest Mountain: Ben Nevis
o        Uncommon regional language: Gaelic
•        Wales
o        Capital: Cardiff
o        Landmass: 8.5% of the United Kingdom
o        Population: 3 million
o        Longest river: Severn River (flows from Wales into England)
o        Official language: Welsh
•        Northern Ireland (Ulster)
o        Capital: Belfast
o        Landmass: 5.7% of the United Kingdom
o        Population: 1.5 million
o        The Largest Lake: Lough Neagh
o        Uncommon historical language: Irish
Social Structure
•        The U.K. is a very class-conscious society.
•        Social mobility
o        Ability to move up or down in status based on wealth, occupation, education, or some other social variable. The U.K. is a socially mobile society.
•        Class Structure
o        Upper-class
        Wealthy, highly educated, and/or socially distinguished citizens
o        Middle-class
        Average income earners, educated,
o        Working-class
        Unskilled to skilled laborers
o        Underclass
        Homeless and/or long-term unemployed citizens

History
Main foreign invaders in chronological order
•        Romans
o        Part of the Roman Empire
•        The Anglo-Saxons
o        Germanic tribes
o        England means “Angle’s Land”
•        The Vikings
o        From northern Europe
•        The Normans
o        Modern-day France
Feudalism
•        The Hundred years War
o        Fought between France and England
o        Destroyed feudal nobility and brought a new social order
o        France lost
The Tudors
•        Henry VII
o        Seized the crown from King Richard III, becoming the first Tudor monarch
•        Henry VIII
o        Created the Church of England, ruled by the monarch
o        Famous for having six wives
•        Edward VI
o        Henry’s only son, died when he was very young
•        Mary I
o        Restored Catholicism and killed hundreds of Protestants
o        Known as Bloody Mary
•        Elizabeth I
o        Restored the Church of England
o        Ushered in a Golden Age in British History
o        Stopped religious fighting, maintained peace with other nations, expanded trade, developed an open parliament, promoted business, grew the military and took coXXXol of the seas
World War I
•        A very destructive and expensive war
•        Signaled the beginning of the decline of the British Empire
World War II
•        Led to high unemployment, a devastated infrastructure, and economic collapse in the United Kingdom.
•        Signaled the end of the British Empire and the rise of the United States
•        Winston Churchill was the Prime Minister during this war
•        See World War I and World War II under The United States for more details.

Way of Life
Recreation
•        Social drinking at a pub is the most common social activity
•        Sports originating from the U.K.
o        Soccer (the national sport), tennis, golf, badminton, boxing, rugby, cricket, snooker, squash, billiards, curling
•        Places to go during free time
o        Movies, libraries, museums, concerts, sporting events, musicals, plays,
•        Like to read magazines and news papers
o        The Daily Telegraph is considered a “quality” newspaper
•        Television is owned by the government
o        Television Channels are numbered: BBC 4, BBC 5, etc.
Famous People
•        Famous author: J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter series
•        Famous band: The Beatles


The United States of America

Symbols
Flag
•        Also known as the Star-spangled Banner, Stars and Stripes, and Old Glory
•        The 50 stars represent the 50 states in the union
•        The 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies
National Anthem
•        “The Star-spangled Banner”
•        Written about our flag at Fort McHenry during the War of 1812

CouXXXy
48 contiguous states and 2 noncontiguous states
Physical features and climate by region
•        West
o        Deserts (Like the Sierra Nevada Desert)
o        Very mountainous region known as The Cordillera (includes the Rocky Mountains, aka the Rockies)
        Mountains reach the coast, rocky coasts, very small beaches
        People moved here because of the discovery of GOLD
o        Old-growth forests in the northwest (Sequoia National Park)
o        Consistent temperatures along the coast all year
o        Rains in the north, snows in the mountains, no precipitation in the desert
o        Arid West – rainfall is unpredictable
o        Humid Pacific Coast – has a Mediterranean climate
•        Mid-west
o        The Great Mississippi River Valley
o        Very flat (the Great Plains)
o        Great for farming, especially grains (The Breadbasket of America)
o        Unpredictable temperatures
o        Very windy, prone to tornadoes (Tornado Alley)
•        East
o        The Appalachian Mountains, very “short” eroded mountain chain
o        Large, flat coastal region between the mountains and the Atlantic ocean
o        Humid climate
o        Four distinct seasons
        Hot summers, cool falls/autumns, cold snowy winters, rainy warm springs
•        South
o        Flat coastal region
o        Dry regions to the west are good for ranches, cattle farms
o        Gulf coast region is prone to hurricanes
o        Hot and humid summers, warm rainy springs, cool winters, no snow

History
Pre-European
•        First humans to live in America are called Indians or Native Americans
1600s
•        Europeans were either religiously or financially motivated to colonize America
•        The first permanent English settlement was Jamestown
o        Located in Virginia, financially motivated
        The first English colonist in the South came for economic reasons
•        Plymouth was a religious colony
o        Located in Massachusetts, founded by the Pilgrims
1700s
•        Settlers from England, continental Europe, and Africa traveled to North America
•        The East Coast was organized into 13 colonies
The Revolutionary War (1775 – 1783)
•        Fought between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen British colonies
•        The colonies declared independence on July 4th, 1776
•        George Washington was the general in charge of the Continental Army
•        The colonies won the war in 1783 when both sides signed the Treaty of Paris
•        George Washington become the first president
The Civil War (1861 – 1865)
•        Fought between the Northern and Southern states
•        The Northern states where still called The United States or the Union
•        The Southern states wanted to leave the Union, calling themselves the Confederate States or the Confederacy
•        The Confederate States lost the war and the Union was maintained
•        More Americans died in the Civil War than any other war in American history
o        More Americans died than both World War I and World War II combined
•        Abraham Lincoln
o        President during the Civil War
o        16th president of the United States
Reconstruction Era
•        The North was untouched
o        Boom in industrial development
•        The West expanded
o        Great leaps in farming, mining, and ranching
•        The South was destroyed
o        Had to rebuild infrastructure
o        Build a new society around freed slaves
        Tried to maintain white supremacy
World War I (1914 – 1918)
•        Fought between:
o        The Triple Alliance / CeXXXal Powers
        Original three: German, Austria-Hungry, Italy
        Italy left in 1915
o        The Triple Entent / Allied Powers
        Original three: Britain, France, Russia,
        28 nations joined including China and the U.S.
World War II (1939 – 1945)
•        Fought between:
o        The Allies
        Major Allies: Soviet Union, The British Empire, France, Poland, China, the United States
        Winston Churchill was the British Prime Minister
o        The Axis
        Major Axis: Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary
        Adolf Hitler was the German Chancellor

Identity, Private Life
A Nation of Immigrants
•        The U.S. is a heterogeneous society
o        A mix of cultures, ethnicities, national origins, races, and religions
o        Metaphorically referred to as a melting pot, mosaic, salad, or soup
•        Ethnicity of Americans by Population
o        White/European American
        196 million, 63.7%
o        Latino/Hispanic
        50.5 million, 16%
o        Black/African American
        39 million, 12.6%
o        Asian American
        14.6 million, 4.8%
o        Native American
        2.9 million, <1%
Population Distribution
•        Most people live in the suburbs
•        Poorer people tend to live in the city
•        2/3 of the population live in the Northeast
Lifestyle
•        1st in home ownership
o        Most Americans live in single family homes
o        2/3 families own homes
•        Children do household ‘chores’
•        Young teenagers find part-time work – values of work, experience and independence
•        Young teenagers – pay or coXXXibute towards things that are not daily living essentials
•        Young adults leave the family home earlier than in most other couXXXies.
•        Work – most Americans work 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, 4 weeks paid vacation a year
•        School – ends daily 3:30pm, summer and winter vacations
•        After work – parents take part in variety of classes, join clubs and do voluntary activities
•        After school – children take extra lessons and take part in sporting activities and do voluntary work
Sports
•        American football – most popular team sport and spectator sport
•        4 major sports – American football, baseball, basketball, and hockey
•        Golf – popular sport as well as an important social gathering activity
•        Tennis & Swimming –  popular among college students
•        Skating & Skiing – winter sports popular with northerners
•        Sailing & Surfing – popular with people living near coastlines & lakes
•        Physical fitness craze – concerns with being overweight and living a sedentary lifestyle


Canada
Symbols
Flag
•        Red and white
•        Maple leaf in the center of the flag, a popular symbol of Canada
National Anthem
•        “O Canada”

The Land and the People
Geography
•        Second largest couXXXy
•        It is composed of ten provinces and three territories.
•        More lakes and inland water that any other couXXXy.
•        Most of the couXXXy is uninhabitable
o        Under water, rocky, marshy, and mountainous
•        Regions – Can you locate and describe them?
o        Appalachian Mountains, Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canadian Shield, Canadian Interior Plains, Western Cordillera, Canadian Artic
Population
•        34,762,600 people
•        Native Canadians descended from Mongolians in Asia
•        Demographics
o        Canadian 32%
o        English 21%
o        French 15.8%
o        Scottish 15.1%
o        Irish 13.9%
o        German 10.2%
o        Italian 4.6%
o        Chinese 4.3%

History
Important People
•        John Cabot (for England) 1497
o        First to explore N. America since Vikings
o        Search for the Northwest Passage
•        Jacques Cartier (France) 1534
o        First to travel inland in North America
o        Claimed Canada for France
•        Henry Hudson (England) 1607
o        Attempted to find the Northwest Passage
o        Crew mutinied in June, 1611 and sent Hudson adrift with his son and some crew.
•        Samuel de Champlain (France) 1608
o        The Father of New France
o        Exploration of New France
o        Founding of Quebec City
o        Fur trade was popular at this time, especially for the highly profitable beaver
New France
•        Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)
o        Conflict with English colonies to the south over trade routes, mostly for fur, especially beaver fur.
o        The Treaty of Paris ended the war
        New France ceded to Britain
        Britain allowed French colonists to retain language and religion.
1800s
•        The United States and Canada fought during the War of 1812
•        By the 1830s, Reformers wanted an American-style government and rebelled
•        Britain implemented a fair Canadian parliament to unite the couXXXy
o        Canada became a confederation
1900s
•        Canada relied more on the US than Britain for imports and exports.
•        World War I and II helped strengthen the economy.
•        In 1931, Canada became an independent couXXXy but still part of the Common Wealth of Nations
The Quiet Revolution
•        An intense relationship between English and French Canadians
•        1974, French became the official language of Quebec
•        Push for Quebec’s independence
•        Attempts to eliminate English

Social and Cultural Life
Welfare
•        Protections from the insecurities of modern society.
o        Pensions, disability protection, unemployment insurance, child benefits, maternity welfare, subsidized housing, and free medical care
•        Pensions
o        Every Canadian has the right to a pension when they retire.
•        Heath care
o        Responsibility of the provinces
o        Public heath care is universal
o        90% of costs covered by the government
Education
•        Just like its welfare system, education is managed by the 13 legislatures of the provinces and territories.
•        Free schooling from kindergarten to grade 12
o        Grade 13 in Ontario and grade 11 in Quebec
•        Depending on the province, school is compulsory from age 6 or 7 to 14 or 16.
•        Elementary
o        Kindergarten through grades 6 or 7 or 8
•        Secondary/high school
o        Up to grades 9 or 10 or 12
•        Community colleges
o        Two to three years
o        Trade, vocational, and technical courses
•        Universities
o        At least three years
o        Grant degrees
Environment
•        Environmental Conservation Authority (ECA)
o        Established in Alberta, it was the first body responsible for environmental issues
•        Environment Canada
o        Federal department for environmental protection
•        Attempts to curb acid rain
o        Caused by carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide from vehicles and industry.
•        Cleaning up waterways and lakes
•        Protecting and replanting forests
o        Lumber industry + forests = “green gold”
•        Extensive national parks
o        government protected land to preserve wildlife and the environment
Multiculturalism
•        Most Canadians are either of French or British origin
•        The French struggle for a separate identity
•        Bilingualism: French and English
o        Most Canadians speak English
o        Official Languages Act (1969)
        Both languages are official languages
o        Different provinces treat the issue in different ways
        Quebec made French their official language
        Ontario has encouraged bilingual schooling
        Etc.
Cultural Life
•        Food
o        Canadian cuisine varies widely depending on the region.
o        Three earliest styles of food
        First Nations (Native Canadian cuisine)
        English (British and American cuisine)
        French (French cuisine and winter provisions of fur traders)
o        Famous for their maple syrup
•        Sports
o        Ice hockey
        Official winter sport
o        Street hockey
        In the summer
o        Curling
o        Lacrosse
        Official summer sport
o        Canadian football
o        Other popular sports: baseball, basketball, American football
•        Holidays
o        Canada Day
        July 1st
        Celebrates Canada’s 1867 Confederation and establishment of dominion status
o        Labour Day
        First Monday in September
        Celebrates economic and social achievements of workers
o        Victoria Day / Queen’s Day
        Monday on or before May 24th
        Celebrates the birthday of the reigning Canadian monarch. Fixed on the birthday of Queen Victoria.
o        Thanksgiving
        Second Monday in October
        A day to give thanks for the things one has at the close of the harvest.


The Commonwealth of Australia
Symbols
Flag
•        Composed of the Union flag (loyalty to the British Empire)
•        The Commonwealth Star (Represents the 6 states and territories)
•        The Southern Cross (a star constellation in the southern hemisphere)
National Anthem
•        “Advance Australia Fair”

The Land and the People
There are 6 states and territories
The capital is Canberra
Three physical regions
•        Western Plateau
o        Covers 60% of Australia
o        Interior and center are referred to as The Outback
o        The Australian deserts are known as “The Heartless Center of Australia”
        Great Victoria – the largest desert in Australia
        Great Sandy – the second largest desert
        Tanami – the third largest desert
        Simpson – the fourth largest desert
        The Gibson – the third largest desert
•        Ayres Rock / Uluru – the world’s largest rock
o        Nullarbor – means “no trees”
        Most famous and frequently traveled desert
        Nullarbor Plain is the world’s largest piece of limestone
        Eyre Highway goes through it, the longest straight road in the world
        Has the world’s longest cliff face
        Indian Pacific in the longest stretch of straight railway track
•        CeXXXal Lowlands
o        Also known as the Great Artesian Basin
o        Lowest point in Australia is Lake Eyre, the largest artesian basin in the world
o        Contains five major deserts
•        Eastern Highlands
o        Covers 15% of Australia
o        Has high plateaus, gorges, and low mountains
Climate
•        Known as “the Land in the Sun”
Plants and Animals
•        Famous plants: acacia, eucalyptus, kangaroo paw, baobab
•        Famous animals: kangaroos, wombats, emus, wallabies, Tasmanian devils, platypuses, koala
o        Half the mammals are marsupials (pouched animals)
People
•        Aborigines
o        world’s oldest indigenous people
o        Part of Australian identity
o        Origin of the boomerang and the didgeridoo
•        Europeans
o        95% of Australians are from European decent, 40% of whom are British
•        85% of the population live in urban areas

History
Convictism
•        Early settlers were convicts.
o        Britain sent convicts to Australia between 1788 and 1868
o        Captain Arthur Philip established Port Jackson, a penal colony, on 1/26/1788.
o        The shame of being a descendant of a convict is known as the convict stain
The Gold Rush
•        Gold was discovered New South Wales
•        Australia transformed economically, politically, and demographically
•        Population triples from 1850 to 1862
•        Rise of the middle class
The 1890s Depression
•        Economic depression reveals weakness in economy
Federation
•        British influence weakens
•        A federation forms by 1901
o        The six separate British colonies form a common government
o        Divided powers: state government and federal government
1901 – 1914
•        Australia led the world in social and industrial reforms
The Great Depression
•        Australia’s economic boom of the 1920s is greatly affected by the Depression
•        Dependance on exporting wool and wheat hurt the economy
•        Unemployment reached 29 percent
The New Right
•        Conservative backlash to the freedom movement of the 1960s and 1970s
•        Promotion of free market economies
•        Nationalism (white, Anglo-Australian way of life)

Social and Cultural Life
The White Australia Policy
•        Attempt to keep non-European immigrants from entering the couXXXy
•        Immigration Restriction Act
•        Passed by the first parliament to created disincentives and barriers for immigrants
After World War II
•        Opened to immigration with the expectation to assimilate and conform
After 1970s
•        New focus on multiculturalism
•        Effort to preserve native languages and cultures
•        Australia is still relatively white
Education
•        Elementary and secondary school are compulsory
•        Elementary education
o        Start around 6, lasts about 6 years
•        Junior and high school
o        About 6 years of education
•        Higher education
o        Universities
        Degrees and research
        Bachelor’s, master’s, doctorate
o        Colleges of Advanced Education
        Training, like education training
o        Technology and Further Education
        Vocational and technical certifications
Sports
•        The number one type of TV program
•        Types of sports
o        Australian football, cricket, netball (most popular participation sport), rugby, hockey, horse racing, sailing, motorsports, golf, cycling
Holidays
•        Australia Day, January 26th
•        ANZAV Day, April 25th
•        Remembrance Day, November 11th


New Zealand / Aotearoa
Symbols
Flag
•        The Union flag is in the top corner
o        Shows loyalty to Britain
•        Southern Cross
o        A constellation seen in the Southern hemisphere
National Anthem
•        “God Save the Queen”
•        “God Defend New Zealand”
o        Both in English and Maori
National Symbol
•        The Kiwi – a flightless bird

The Land and the People
Located in the Pacific Ocean
North Island
•        Auckland – the largest city
•        Wellington – the capital city
•        There are many volcanoes on the island
•        There are four volcanic mountains
o        Mount Egmont – most famous
o        Mount Ruapehu – the highest mountain
o        Mount Ngauruhoe – most active
o        Mount Tonngariro – smallest mountain
•        Swift rivers
•        Hot springs
•        Craters
•        Energy
o        Geothermal
o        Hydro-electric
South Island
•        The most impressive mountains
•        Glaciers
o        Form lakes and rivers
Climate
•        Mild temperatures
•        High rainfall
•        Many hours of sunshine
•        The mountains influence the weather
o        Western side is very wet
o        Eastern side is very dry
Plants and Animals
•        Geographic isolation and weather has led to the evolution of unique species only found on New Zealand!  YAY!
•        Almost no native mammals
•        An abundance of different birds
•        A diversity of marine life
•        The Kiwi – the National Symbol of NZ
•        Kakapo – worlds largest parrot
•        Tuatara – only beak-headed reptile
•        Hector’s dolphins
o        The world’s largest dolphins
o        Only found in New Zealand
People
•        Population – 4.24 million people
o        ¾ live on the North Island
o        85.4% live in urban areas
o        80% are of mixed European descent
        English, Scottish, Irish, German, etc.
•        Maori
o        Largest non-European group (15%)
o        Original inhabitants (around 1100)
o        Polynesian
•        Official Languages
o        English and Maori
•        No state religion (freedom of religion)
o        40% have no religious affiliation
        Number is growing
•        Dominate religion is Christianity
o        In decline

History and the Present
Maori
•        Descendants from the first Polynesian settlers around 1000AD
•        Named the land Aotearoa
European
•        Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to discover NZ in 1642
•        British explorer Captain James Cook mapped the island in 1796
•        Newcomers were called Pakeha by the Maori
•        The Pakeha were missionaries, traders, whalers, and sealers
Treaty of Waitangi
•        Attempt to ease tensions between the Maori and the colonists
•        Signed in 1840
•        The Maori chiefs give the British Queen governance of the islands
•        The Queen’s representatives promise Maori ownership of their land, forests and fisheries
•        And gave the Maori the rights of British citizens
•        Waitangi Day, New Zealand’s national day
1840
•        Britain establish first settlement at Wellington
•        Land wars break out
•        British ignore the Treaty and take land from the Maori
•        By 1890, Maori own less than 1/6 of New Zealand
The growth of a nation
•        New Zealand Constitution Act
o        Establishes an independent government in 1852
o        General assembly
o        Legislative council
o        Elected house of representatives
•        New Zealand officially becomes a dominion in 1907
Late 19th Century
•        Economic growth
o        The discovery of gold
o        Economy based on agriculture
o        Overseas trade in wool, meat, and dairy
•        Progressive reforms
o        1st couXXXy to allow women to vote in 1983
o        1st couXXXy to provide a pension to elderly people in 1898
Modernization
•        Full independence from Britain in 1947
•        Economy continues to be based on agriculture
•        Electoral reforms in 1993
•        Minority parties are given better representation in parliament
Recreation
•        Sports
o        British sports like rugby, cricket, netball
o        Unique geography makes skiing, hiking, skydiving, swimming, and fishing popular.
•        Spend time in summer homes called “bachs” or “cribs”
Maoritanga
•        Rich and varied traditions of the Maori people
•        Based on cooperation, loyalty, pride, and respect
•        Maori are the official host people of New Zealand


















































发表于 2018-4-13 15:41:08 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|ABCDV网站 ( 京ICP备06005942 |||| 京公网安备11010802012322 )

GMT+8, 2018-4-25 06:35 , Processed in 0.109374 second(s), 7 queries , Gzip On, MemCache On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表